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INDEX 243 


THE life of Snorri Sturluson fell in a great but con- 
tradictory age, when all that was noble and spiritual 
in men seemed to promise social regeneration, and when 
bloody crimes and sordid ambitions gave this hope the lie. 
Not less than the rest of Europe, Scandinavia shared in 
the bitter conflict between the law of the spirit and the law 
of the members. The North, like England and the Conti- 
nent, felt the religious fervor of the Crusades, passed from 
potential anarchy into union and national consciousness, 
experienced a literary and spiritual revival, and suffered 
the fury of persecution and of fratricidal war. No greater 
error could be committed than to think of the Northern 
lands as cut oflFby barriers of distance, tongue, and custom 
from the heart of the Continent, and in consequence as 
countries where men's thoughts and deeds were more un- 
restrained and uncivilized. Even as England, France, and 
Germany acted and reacted upon one another in politics, 
in social growth, in art, and in literature, so all three acted 
upon Scandinavia, and felt the reaction of her influence. 
Nearly thirty years before Snorri's birth, the Danish 
kingdom had been the plaything of a German prince, 
Henry the Lion, who set up or pulled down her rulers as he 
saw fit; and during Snorri's boyhood,' one of these rulers, 
Valdamarr I, contributed to Henry's political destruction. 
In Norway, Sverrir Sigurdarson had swept away the old 
social order, and replaced it with one more highly central- 
ized; had challenged the power of Rome without, and that 
of his own nobles within, like Henry II of England and 
Frederick Barbarossa. After Sverrir's death, an interreg- 
num followed; but at last there came to the throne a mon- 


arch both powerful and enlightened, who extended the re- 
forms of Sverrir,and having brought about unity and peace, 
quickened the intellectual life of Norway with the fructify- 
ing influence of French and English literary models. Under 
the patronage of this ruler, Hakon Hakonarson, the great 
romances, notably those of Chretien de Troyes,were trans- 
lated into Norse, some of them passing over into Swedish, 
Danish, and Icelandic. Somewhat later, Matthew Paris, the 
great scholar and author, who represented the culture both 
of England and of France, spent eighteen months in Nor- 
way, though not until after Snorri's death. 

Iceland itself, in part through Norway, in part directly, 
drew from the life of the Continent : Saemundr the Learned, 
who had studied in Paris, founded a school at Oddi ; Sturla 
Sigvatsson, Snorri's nephew, made a pilgrimage to Rome, 
and visited Germany; and Snorri himself shows, in the 
opening pages of his Heimskringla^ or History of the Kings 
of Norway, the influence of that great romantic cycle, the 
Matter of Troy. 

Snorri Sturluson was in the fullest sense a product of 
his time. The son of a turbulent and ambitious chieftain, 
Sturla Thordsson, of Hvamm in western Iceland, he was 
born to a heritage of strife and avarice. The history of the 
Sturlung house, like that of Douglas in Scotland, is a long 
and perplexed chronicle of intrigue, treachery, and assassi- 
nation, in all of which Snorri played an active part. But 
even as among the Douglases there was one who, how- 
ever deep in treason and intrigue, yet loved learning and 
poetry, and was distinguished in each, so Snorri, involved 
by sordid political chicanery, found time not only to com- 
pose original verse which was admired by his contempo- 
raries, but also to record the myths and legends, the history 


and poetry, of his race, in a prose that is one of the glories 
of the age. 

The perplexing story of Snorri's life, told by his nephew, 
Sturla Thordsson,* may well be omitted from this brief 
discussion. A careful and scholarly account of it by Eirikr 
Magnusson' will be found in the introduction to the sixth 
volume of The Saga Library. From Snorri's marriage in 1 1 99 
to his assassination at the hands of his son-in-law, Gizurr 
Thorvaldsson, in 1241, there was little in his life which 
his biographer could relate with satisfaction. His friends, 
his relatives, his very children, Snorri sacrificed to his in- 
satiate ambition. As chief and as lawman, he gave venal 
decisions and perverted justice; he purposed at any cost to 
become the most powerful man in Iceland. There is even 
ground for belief that he deliberately undertook to betray 
the republic to Hakon of Norway, and that only his lack of 
courage prevented him from subverting his country's lib- 
erty. Failure brought about his death, for Snorri, who had 
been a favorite at the Norwegian court, incurred the King's 
suspicion after fifteen years had passed with no accom- 
plishment; and daring to leave Norway against Hakon's 
command, he fell under the royal displeasure. Gizurr, his 
murderer, proved to have been acting at the express order 
of the King. 

Eirikr Magnusson, in the admirable biography to which 
I have referred, attempts to apologize for Snorri's faults on 
the ground that he " really compares very favorably with 
the leading contemporary godar [chieftains] of the land." It 
is true that he made no overt attempt to keep his treason- 

^ Sturlunga Saga, edited by G. Vigfusson, Oxford, 1878. 

" TAe Saga Library^ edited by William Morris and Eirikr Magnusson, vol. vi ; 

Heimskringlaj vol. iv, London, 1905, 


able promise to Norway, but I think it by no means cer- 
tain that repentance stayed his hand. Indeed, familiar as he 
was with the hopelessly anarchical conditions of his native 
land, its devastating feuds, its plethora of lawless, unscru- 
pulous chiefs, all striving for wealth and influence, none 
inspired with a genuine affection for the commonwealth, 
nor understanding the fundamental principles of demo- 
cracy, Snorri may well have felt that it were far better to 
endure a foreign ruler who could compel union and peace. 
If this was the motive underlying his self-alfasement at the 
Norwegian court and his promises to Hakon, then weak- 
ness alone is sufficient to account for his failure; if he had 
no such purpose, he must be regarded as both weak and 

It is with relief that we turn to Snorri's works, to find 
in them, at least, traces of genuine nobility of spirit. The 
unscrupulous politician kept sound and pure some corner 
of his heart in which to enshrine his love for his people's^V 
glorious past, for the myths of their ancient gods, half 
grotesque and half sublime: for the Christ-like Baldr; for 
Promethean Odin and T^r, sacrificing eye and hand to save 
the race; for the tears of Freyja, the tragic sorrows of 
Gudrun,the pitiful end of Svanhildr, the magnificent, all- 
devastating fire of Ragnarok. 

His interest in these wondrous things, like Scott's love 
for the heroes, beliefs, and customs of the Scottish folk, 
was, I think, primarily antiquarian. Indefatigable in re- 
search, with an artist's eye for the picturesque, a poet's 
feeling for the dramatic and the human, he created the 
most vivid, vital histories that have yet been penned. Ac- 
curate beyond the manner of his age, gifted with genius 
for expression, divining the human personalities, the comic 


or tragic interplay of ambitions, passions, and destinies 
behind the mere chronicled events, he had almost ideal 
qualities as an historian. 

Poet he was too, though the codified rules, the cryp- 
tic phrase, and conventional expression, which indeed 
"bound" together the words of the singers of ancient 
Scandinavia, must spoil his verse for us. Yet it is well to 
remember that in his own lifetime, not his natural prose, 
but his artificial poetry was famous throughout the North. 

Snorri's greatest work is undoubtedly the Heimskringla,^ 
Beginning with a rationalized account of the founding of 
Northern civilization by the ancient gods, he proceeds 
through heroic legend to the historical period, and follows 
the careers of his heroes on the throne, in Eastern courts 
and camps, or on forays in distant lands, from the earliest 
times to the reign of Sverrir, who came to the throne in 
1 1 84, five years after the author's birth. 
\C "The materials at Snorri's disposal," says Magnusson,* 
' "were: oral tradition; written genealogical records; old 
songs or narrative lays such as ThiodolPs Tale' of the 
Ynglingsand Eyvind's HalogaTale; poems of court poets, 
/.^., historic songs, which people knew by heart all from 
the days of Hairfair down to Snorri's own time. 'And most 
store,' he says, ' we set by that which is said in such songs 
as were sung before the chiefs themselves or the sons of 
them; and we hold all that true which is found in these 
songs concerning their wayfarings and their battles.* Of 

' An excellent description and classification of the MSS. may be found in The 
Saga Library, vol. vi, Introductory, pp. Ixxiv-lxxvi. For Snorri's sources con- 
sult pp. Ixxvi fF. 

• Ihid»j p. Ixxxvi. 

' Tal is used here in the sense of an enumeration (of ancestors); hence, a 


the written prose sources he drew upon he only mentions 
Ari the Learned's ^ book/ . . . probably, as it seems to us, 
because in the statements of that work he had as implicit 
a faith as in the other sources he mentions, and found 
reason to alter nothing therein, while the sources he does 
not mention he silently criticises throughout, rejecting or 
altering them according as his critical faculty dictated. 

** Before Snorri's time there existed only . . . separate, 
disjointed biographical monographs on Norwegian kings, 
written on the model of the family sagas of Iceland. Snorri's 
was a more ambitious task. Discerning that the course of 
life is determined by cause and effect, and that in the lives 
of kings widely ramified interests, national and dynastic, 
come into play, he conceived a new idea of saga- writing: 
the seed of cause sown in the preceding must yield its crop 
of effect in the succeeding reign. This the writer of lives 
of kings must bear in mind. And so Snorri addresses him- 
self to writing the first pragmatic history ever penned in any 
Teutonic vernacular — the Heimskringla.'''' 

The evidence for Snorri's authorship of Heimskringla 
is not conclusive; but Vigfusson's demonstration is ac- 
cepted by most scholars.' We may safely assume, apart 
from the general tendency of the external evidence, that 
one and the same author must have written the histories 
and the Prose Edda. A comparison of the names of skalds 
and skaldic poems mentioned in both works will show that 
the author of each had a wide acquaintance with the con- 
ventional poetic literature of Scandinavia, particularly of 
Iceland, and that, if we suppose two distinct authors, both 
men had almost precisely the same poetic equipment. Each 

' See Sturlunga Saga, vol. i, Proleg., pp. Ixxv fF. The limitations of an introduc- 
tion do not permit an abstract of the discussion in this place. 


of the works under consideration begins with a rationali- 
zation of the Odinic myths, and reveals an identity of 
attitude toward the ancient faith. Furthermore, the careful 
reader will be charmed with the sinewy style of both the 
Helms kringla and the Edda^ and will be obliged to admit 
the close similarity between them in structure and in ex- 
pression. Finally, Vigfusson has shown that they exhibit 
occasionally a remarkable identity of phrase.' 

^XhcLProse Edda is undoubtedly by Snorri. It is pre- 
served in three primary manuscripts : Codex Regius, early 
fourteenth century ; Codex Wormianus, fourteenth cen- 
tury, named from Ole Worm, from whose hands it passed, 
in 1706, into the hands of Arni Magnusson; and Codex 
Upsaliensis, about 1300, perhaps a direct copy of Snorri's 
own text. This last manuscript, and also the Arnamagnaean 
vellum No. 748, which preserves a portion of the text, tes- 
tify unmistakably to Snorri's authorship; the Codex even 
gives, in detail, the suTyects of the three divisions of the 

These three divisions, but for the evidence of the manu- 
scripts, might seem to afford ground for assuming plural 
authorship. The first part, the Gylfaginningyor Beguiling of 
Gylfi, is an epitome of Odinic mythology, cast in the form 
of a dialogue between Gylfi, a legendary Swedish king, 
and the triune Odin. Snorri, though a Christian, tells the 
old pagan tales with obvious relish, and often, in the enthu- 
siasm of the true antiquary, rises to magnificent heights. 
Ever and again he fortifies his narrative with citations from 
the Poetic Edda^ the great treasure-house of Scandinavian 
mythological and heroic poetry. 

One passes from Gylfaginning to Skalds kaparmal with 

'See Sturlunga Saga, vol. i, Proleg. pp. Ixxvii, and note. 



very little shock, in spite of the great difference in subject 
and treatment, which the author has attempted, rather skil- 
fully, to modulate through a second dialogue. The ques- 
tioner this time is one iEgir; and replies are made by the 
god Bragi, famed for eloquence and the gift of poetic ex- 
pression. This intprmf^^ia^i^ ^]j;y]pgm*^ra1lpH Bragaradur^ 
or Bragi's EJiscourses, strikes the keynote of the entiro 
book, and really reconciles the first section to the second 
and third, whose dissimilarity to Gylfaginning have led some 
scholars to believe that one or the other is not Snorri's 
work. The god relates several adventures of the ^sir of 
the same character as those recounted in Gylfaginning^ and 
concludes with a myth concerning the origin of the poetic 
art. From this point on, barely maintaining the fiction of 
the dialogue, Snorri makes his work a treatise on the con- 
ventional vocabulary and phraseology of skaldship, for the 
guidance of young skalds. 

The third section of the Edda is the Hattatal^ or Enu- 
meration of Metres, and combines three separate songs of 
praise : one on King Hakon, a second on Skuli Bardsson, 
the King's father-in-law and most powerful vassal, and 
a third celebrating both. Each of the hundred and two stan- 
zas of the work belongs to a distinct metric type or sub- 
type, and between stanzas Snorri has inserted definitions, 
occasionally longer notes, or comments. 

We are now in a position to see the purpose and the 
^.artistic unity of the Prose Edda: the entire work is a text- 
/book for apprentice poets. Gylfaginning^ conceived in the 
true antiquarian spirit, supplies the mythological and le- 
gendary background which, in the Christian age that had 
superseded the vivid old heathen days, a young man might 
not know or might avoid. ''Do not lose sight of these 


splendid tales of the fathers," Snorri, by implication, says 
to the youthful bard; "but remember always that these old 
legends are to be used to point a moral or adorn a tale, and 
not to be believed, or to be altered without authority of 
ancient skalds who knew them. Belief is sin ; tampering 
with tradition is a crime against scholarship." 

The second and third sections, Skaldskaparmal and Hat- 
tataly offer the rules of composition, and drive them home 
by means of models drawn, in the one case, from acknow- 
ledged masters of the craft, in the other, by the example 
of a complete skaldic trilogy, the work of a man who was 
accepted by his own time as a worthy successor of Bragi, 
Kormakr, and Einarr. A needed transition from the lit- 
erary to the technical portion of the book is supplied by 
Bragaradur^ which narrates, in the same spirit as Gylfa- 
ginningj further useful tales, and concludes with a mytho- 
logical account of the skaldic art. 

Even the Prologue, which many scholars consider spu- 
rious, is an integral part of the work — a fact established 
by Snorri's single address, in the character of the author, 
to beginners. In this apostrophe he refers to the Prologue : 
'* Remember, these tales are to be used only as Chief Skalds 
have used them, and must be revered as ancient tradition, 
but are neither to be believed nor to be tampered with. 
Regard them as I have indicated at the beginning of this 
book,** Xhe beginning of the book is a summary of the 
Biblical story of the Creation and Deluge, followed by a 
rationalixed account of the rise of the ancient pagan faith, 
according to which the old gods appear, not as deities, but 
as men. 

The word "Edda," as applied to the whole work, has 
long furnished scholars with material for disputation. The 



different theories regarding it need not be re-stated here. 
It is the translator's personal opinion that Magnusson's 
etymology, if not established, is at least the most satisfac- 
tory one likely to be offered. Magnusson' points out that 
Snorri passed the interval between his third and nineteenth 
years at Oddi, under the fostering of the grandson of 
Saemundr the Learned; that Saemundr, who had studied 
at Paris, had founded a school at Oddi ; that Snorri became 
the author of a book which was called Edda; and that 
this book contains, in its first section, a prose paraphrase 
of many of the songs from the Elder or Poetic Edda^ to- 
gether with a number of quotations from that work. Now 
the Poetic Edda was ascribed by its earliest recorded pos- 
sessor, Bishop Brynjolf Sveinsson,to Saemundr; and while 
it is improbable that Saemundr composed the poem, it is 
highly probable that it once formed part of his library at 
Oddi. There Snorri may have learned to know it; and we 
may assume that he gave the prose edition the name of 
its poetical original. That original, "the mother MS.," he 
thinks would naturally have been called ** the book of, or 
at Oddi," which would be expressed, in Icelandic, either 
as " Oddabok," or as " Edda," following, in the latter case, 
accepted linguistic laws. 

Snorri's familiarity with the Elder or Poetic Edda is 
demonstrated by his frequent quotations from Vbluspa^ Ha- 
vamal^ Grtmn'ismal^ Vafthrudnismal^ Alsvtnnsmal or Alviss- 
mal^ and Grottasongr. He knew Lokasenna as well, but con- 
fused three stanzas,apparently failing to remember the order 

' Magnu88on*8 theory, with a summary of all others in the field, was pre- 
sented in a paper read before the Viking Club on November 15, 1895, pub- 
lished in the Saga Book of that society, and separately printed at London in 


in his original. One poem that he mentions is lacking in the 
Poetic Edda as we know it : Heimdallargaldr^ the Song or 
Incantation of Heimdallr; moreover, he makes seventeen 
citations from other poems which, although lost to us, evi- 
dently formed portions of the original Eddie collections, or 
belonged to the same traditional stock. The disappearance 
of the manuscript which Snorri used is a great loss. 

The first translation of the Prose Edda was published at 
Copenhagen in 1665, when the complete text appeared, 
with Latin and Danish interpretation. This was entitled 
Edda islandorum an* Chr, 12 1 J islandice conscripta per Snor- 
ronem Sturla,^ nunc primum islandice^ danice^ et latine ex an- 
tiquis codicibus in lucem prodit opera P. y, Resenii. The stand- 
ard Danish translation is that of R. Nyerup, Copenhagen, 
1865. In 1746, J. Goransson printed at Upsala the first 
Swedish version, with a Latin translation. Goransson's 
original was the Codex Upsaliensis. Anders Uppstrom 
made an independent translation in 1859. 

In 1 7 5 5-5 6 there appeared at Copenhagen a work of the 
greatest importance for the study of Scandinavian antiqui- 
ties in England : Mallet's Monumens de la Mythologie et de la 
Poesie des Celtes et Particulierement des Anclens Scandinaves, 
This book, which comprised a general introduction on the 
ancient Scandinavian civilization, a translation of Gylfa- 
ginning^ and a synopsis of Skaldskaparmal and Hattatal^ 
was turned into English by Bishop Percy, under the title 
of Northern Antiquities, Percy claimed to know Goransson's 
text as well as the French. Northern Antiquities was pub- 
lished at London in 17 70, and was reprinted at Edinburgh 
in 1809, with additions by Sir Walter Scott. 

The best-known translation, and the only complete one 
which is at all trustworthy, is that in Latin, combined, with 



the Icelandic text, in the Arnamagnaean edition, Copen- 
hagen, 1848-87. 

In 1842, G.W.Dasent, the translator of Njals Saga, 
and a prominent scholar in the Scandinavian field, printed 
at Stockholm his Prose or Tounger Edda^ which contains 
a translation of Gylfaginning znA of the narrative passages 
of Skalds kaparmaL A similarly incomplete English version 
was printed at Chicago, in 1880, by Rasmus B. Anderson. 
Professor Anderson also edited a combined translation of 
both Eddas, the Poetic Edda by Benjamin Thorpe, and 
the Prose Edda by I. A. Blackwell. Blackwell's transla- 
tion, which stops with Bragaradur^ had first appeared at 
London in 1847, together with an abstract of Eyrbyggja 
Saga by Scott. Samuel Laing's translation is likewise in- 

A French version of Gylfaginning^ La Fascination de 
Gulfi^ was published at Strassburg by F. G. Bergmann. 
A second edition appeared in 187 1. 

So far as I can ascertain, the first translation into Ger- 
man was the work of Friedrich Ruhs, Berlin, 181 2. This 
contains a long historical introduction, and ends with the 
story of the Volsungs in SkaldskaparmaL Karl Simrock's 
DieJiingereEdday published in 185 1 and reprinted in 1855, 
although incomplete, is more accurate than any earlier 
translation, and is remarkable for its literary excellence. 
The most scholarly rendering into German is by Hugo 
Gering, Leipzig, 1892, but unfortunately it includes only 
the narrative portions of the book. 

Until 1900, the best edition of Snorri's Edda was by 
Thorleifr Jonsson, Copenhagen, 1875. This was super- 
seded by. Finnur Jonsson's splendid Danish edition. In 
1907, Professor Jonsson produced an Icelandic edition. 


which forms volume xli of the Islendinga Sogur^ published 
at Reykjavik. 

It was fortunate for me that these last two editions ap- 
peared before I began my work. Professor Jonsson pro- 
vided me with an excellent text; and, second in value only 
to this, with an index and an invaluable Icelandic prose 
re-phrasing of the skaldic verses. 

I regret exceedingly that the highly technical nature of 
Hattatal forbids translation into English. There are, to be 
sure, more or less — usually less — accurate translations 
into Scandinavian and into Latin. Even in the excellent 
Arnamagnaean edition, many of the glosses are purely con- 
jectural; and any attempt to convey into English a vocabu- 
lary which has no equivalent in our language must fail. 
Skaldskaparmaly however, is here presented, complete, for 
the first time in English. 

To those who have helped me I wish to express my 
deepest appreciation. First of all, to Professor William 
Henry Schofield I owe a debt of gratitude which is more 
than four years old, and has increased beyond computa- 
tion. Dr. Henry Goddard Leach, my first instructor in 
Scandinavian literature, gave me my greatest single in- 
tellectual stimulus, and thereby determined the current 
of my work. Dr. Frederick W. Lieder, of Harvard Uni- 
versity, deserves my thanks for his devoted assistance in 
reading proof, a task as dreary as it is essential. I am also 
indebted for valuable suggestions to Mr. H. W. Rabe, of 
Simmons College. 

It is a great satisfaction to acknowledge these debts, 
incurred in the course of a labor which has been my de- 
light for several years. I should, however, do injustice to 
those who have aided me, as well as to myself, if I did 


not assume full responsibility for the faults of the trans- 
lation. Whatever these may be, I trust that the book may 
perform some service in bringing before the English- 
reading public a greater portion of Snorri's classic treatise 
than has previously been accessible. The reader will per- 
ceive the value of the Edda if he will compare it, for legen- 
dary and antiquarian interest, with the Mabinogion^ and 
will also realize that the Edda is a masterpiece of style, 
— style that no translator can ever reproduce. 

A. G. B. 

Cambridge i Massachusetts 
July 1, 1916 



IN the beginning God d^ate^ heaven and earth and all 
those things which are irf'tKerti:, and last of all, two 
of human kind, Adam and Eve, frbm/^^iom the races are 
descended. And their offspring multiplied among them- 
selves and were scattered throughout theVarth/'But as time 
passed, the races of men became unlike in 'natiue% some 
were good and believed on the right; but many mdre^tucned 
after the lusts of the world and slighted God's comnAaridC .•• 
Wherefore, God drowned the world in a swelling of thV-*' ; ,- 
sea, and all living things, save them alone that were in 
the ark with Noah. After Noah's flood eight of mankind 
remained alive, who peopled the earth ; and the races de- 
scended from them. And it was even as before : when the 
earth was full of folk and inhabited of many, then all the 
multitude of mankind began to love greed, wealth, and 
worldly honor, but neglected the worship of God. Now 
accordingly it came to so evil a pass that they would not 
name God; and who then could tell their sons of God's 
mighty wonders ? Thus it happened that they lost the name 
of God; and throughout the wideness of the world the 
man was not found who could distinguish in aught the 
trace of his Creator. But not the less did God bestow 
upon them the gifts of the earth : wealth and happiness, 
for their enjoyment in the world ; He increased also their 
wisdom, so that they knew all earthly matters, and every 
phase of whatsoever they might see in the air and on the 

One thing they wondered and pondered over: what it 
might mean, that the earth and the beasts and the birds had 
one nature in some ways, and yet were unlike in manner of 


life. In this was their nature one : that the earth was deft 
into lofty mountain-peaks, wherein wliter spurted up, and 
it was not needful to dig longer for water there than in the 
deep valleys; so it is also ^^ith beasts and birds : it is equally 
far to the blood in-thp head and the feet. Another quality 
of the earth isy tfaa| in each year grass and flowers grow 
upon the earth, ^hd in the same year all that growth falls 
away ^R(i withers ; it is even so with beasts and birds : hair 
and.feathers grow and fall away each year. This is the third 
..^ o^tyi'e of the earth, that when it is opened and dug up, the 
. \** •^.grass grows straightway on the soil which is uppermost on 
the earth. Boulders and stones they likened to the teeth and 
bones of living beings. Thus they recognized that the earth 
was quick, and had life with some manner of nature of its 
own; and they understood that she was wondrous old in 
years and mighty in kind: she nourished all that lived, and 
she took to herself all that died. Therefore they gave her 
a name, and traced the number of their generations from 
her. The same thing, moreover, they learned from their 
aged kinsmen: that many hundreds of years have been 
numbered since the same earth yet was, and the same sun 
and stars of the heavens; but the courses of these were 
unequal, some having a longer course, and some a shorter. 
From things like these the thought stirred within them 
that there might be some governor of the stars of heaven : 
one who might order their courses after his will ; and that 
he must be very strong and full of might. This also they 
held to be true : that if he swayed the chief things of crea- 
tion, he must have been before the stars of heaven; and 
they saw that if he ruled the courses of the heavenly bodies, 
he must also govern the shining of the sun, and the dews 
of the air, and the fruits of the earth, whatsoever grows 


upon it; and in like manner the winds of the air and the 
storms of the sea. They knew not yet where his kingdom 
was ; but this they believed : that he ruled all things on earth 
and in the sky, the great stars also of the heaven, and the 
winds of the sea. Wherefore, not only to tell of this fit- 
tingly, but also that they might fasten it in memory, they 
gave names out of their own minds to all things. This be- 
lief of theirs has changed in many ways, according as the 
peoples drifted asunder and their tongues became severed 
one from another. But all things they discerned with the 
wisdom of the earth, for the understanding of the spirit was 
not given to them ; this they perceived, that all things were 
fashioned of some essence. 


The world was divided into three parts: from the south, 
extending into the west and bordering on the Mediterranean 
Sea, — all this part was called Africa, the southern quarter 
of which is hot, so that it is parched with the sun. The sec- 
ond part, from west to north and bordering on the ocean, 
is called Europa or Enea; its northern part is so cold that 
no grass grows upon it, and no man dwells there. From 
the north and all down over the eastern part, even to the 
south, is called Asia. In that region of the world is all fair- 
ness and pride, and the fruits of the earth's increase, gold 
and jewels. There also is the centre of the earth; and even 
as the land there is lovelier and better in every way than 
in other places, so also were th^ sons of men there most 
favored with all goodly gifts : wisdom, and strength of the 
body, beauty, and all manner of knowledge. 



Near the earth*s centre was made that goodliest of homes 
and haunts that ever have been, which is called Troy, 
even that which we call Turkland. This abode was much 
more gloriously made than others, and fashioned with more 
skill of craftsmanship in manifold wise, both in luxury and 
in the wealth which was there in abundance. There were 
twelve kingdoms and one High King, and many sovereign- 
ties belonged to each kingdom; in the stronghold were 
twelve chieftains. These chieftains were in every manly 
part greatly above other men that have ever been in the 
world. One king among them was called Munon or Men- 
non; and he was wedded to the daughter of the High King 
Priam, her who was called Troan ; they had a child named 
Tror, whom we call Thor. He was fostered in Thrace by 
a certain war-duke called Lorikus; but when he was ten 
winters old he took unto him the weapons of his father. 
He was as goodly to look upon, when he came among 
other men, as the ivory that is inlaid in oak; his hair was 
fairer than gold. When he was twelve winters old he had 
his full measure of strength; then he lifted clear of the 
earth ten bear-skins all at one time; and then he slew 
Duke Lorikus, his foster-father, and with him his wife 
Lora, or Glora, and took into his own hands the realm of 
Thrace, which we call Thrudheim. Then he went forth far 
and wide over the lands, and sought out every quarter of 
the earth, overcoming alone all berserks and giants, and 
one dragon, greatest of all dragons, and many beasts. In the 
northern half of his kingdom he found the prophetess that 
IS called Sibil, whom we call Sif, and wedded her. The 
lineage of Sif I cannot tell ; she was fairest of all women, 


and her hair was like gold. Their son was Loridi, who re- 
sembled his father ; his son was Einridi, his son Vingethor, 
his son Vingener, his son Moda, his son Magi, his son 
Seskef, his son Bedvig, his son Athra (whom we call 
Annarr), his son Itermann, his son Heremod, his son Skjal- 
dun (whom we call Skjold), his son Bjaf (whom we call 
Bjarr), his son Jat, his son Gudolfr, his son Finn, his son 
Friallaf (whom we call Fridleifr); his son was he who is 
named Voden, whom we call Odin : he was a man far- 
famed for wisdom and every accomplishment. His wife 
was Frigida, whom we call Frigg. 


Odin had second sight, and his wife also ; and from their 
foreknowledge he found that his name should be exalted 
in the northern part of the world and glorified above the 
fame of all other kings. Therefore, he made ready to jour- 
ney out of Turkland, and was accompanied by a great 
multitude of people, young folk and old, men and women; 
and they had with them much goods of great price. And 
wherever they went over the lands of the earth, many glori- 
ous things were spoken of them, so that they were held . 
more like gods than men. They made no end to their jour- a 
neying till they were come north into the land that is now 
called Saxland ; there Odin tarried for a long space, and 
took the land into his own hand, far and wide. 

In that land Odin set up three of his sons for land- 
wardens. One was named Vegdeg : he was a mighty king 
and ruled over East Saxland; his son was Vitgils; his sons 
were Vitta, Heingistr's father, and Sigarr, father of Sveb- 
deg, whom we call Svipdagr. The second son of Odin was 


Beldeg, whom we call Baldr: he had the land which is now 
called Westphalia. His son was Brandr, his son Frjodigar 
(whom we call Frodi), his son Freovin, his son Uvigg, 
his son Gevis (whom we call Gave). Odin's third son is 
named Sigi, his son Rerir. These the forefathers, rulpd over 
what is now called Frankland ; and thence is desrenfled the 
house known as Volsungs. From all these are sprung many 
and great houses. 

Then Odin began his way northward, and, came into 
the land which they called Reidgothland ; and in that land 
he took possession of all that pleased him. He set up over 
the land that son of his called Skjoldr, whose son was Frid- 
leifr, — and thence descends the house of the Skjoldungs: 
these are the kings of the Danes. And what was then called 
Reidgothland is now called Jutland. 

After that he went northward, where the land is called 
Sweden; the king there was named Gylfi. When the king 
learned of the coming of those men of Asia, who were 
called iEsir, he went to meet them, and made ofFer to them 
that Odin should have such power in his realm as he him- 
self wielded. And such well-being followed ever upon their 
footsteps, that in whatsoever lands they dwelt were good 
seasons and peace; and all believed that they caused these 
things, for the lords of the land perceived that they were 
unlike other men whom they had seen, both in fairness and 
also in wisdom. 

The fields and the choice lands in that place seemed fair 
to Odin, and he chose for himself the site of a city which 
is now called Sigtun. There he established chieftains in the 



fashion which had prevailed in Troy ; he set up also twelve 
head-men to be doomsmen over the people and to judge 
the laws of the land; and he ordained also all laws as there 
had been before in Troy, and according to the customs of 
the Turks. After that he went into the north, until he was 
stopped by the sea, which men thought lay around all the 
lands of the earth ; and there he set his son over this king- 
dom, which is now called Norway. This king was Saemingr ; 
the kings of Norway trace their lineage from him, and so 
do also the jarls and the other mighty men, as is said in 
the HaleygjataL Odin had with him one of his sons called 
Yngvi, who was king in Sweden after him; and those 
houses come from him that are named Ynglings. The 
^sir took wives of the land for themselves, and some also 
for their sons ; and these kindreds became many in number, 
so that throughout Saxland, and thence all over the region 
of the north, they spread out until their tongue, even the 
speech of the men of Asia, was the native tongue over all 
these lands. Therefore men think that they can perceive, 
from their forefathers' names which are written down, that 
those names belonged to this tongue, and that the Xj%\i 
brought the tongue hither into the northern region, into 
Norway and into Sweden, into Denmark and into Saxland. 
But in England there are ancient lists of land-names and 
place-names which may show that these names came from 
another tongue than this. 



I. King Gylii ruled the land that men now call Sweden. 
It is told of him that he gave to a wandering woman, in 
return for her merry-making, a plow-land in his realm, as 
much as four oxen might turn up in a day and a night. But 
this woman was of the kin of the ^sir; she was named 
Gefjun. She took from the north, out of Jotunheim, four 
oxen which were the sons of a certain giant and herself, 
and set them before the plow. And the plow cut so wide 
and so deep that it loosened up the land; and the oxen drew 
the land out into the sea and to the westward, and stopped 
in a certain sound. There Gefjun set the land, and gave it 
a name, calling it Selund. And from that time on, the spot 
whence the land had been torn up is water : it is now called 
the Logr in Sweden ; and bays lie in that lake even as the 
headlands in Selund. Thus says Bragi, the ancient skald: 

GeQun drew from Gylfi gladly the wave-trove's free- 
Till from the running beasts sweat reeked, to Den- 
mark's increase; 
The oxen bore, moreover, eight eyes, gleaming brow- 
O'er the field's wide booty, and four heads in their 


II. King Gylfi was a wise man and skilled in magic; he 
was much troubled that the i¥lsir-people were so cunning 
that all things went according to their will. He pondered 
whether this might proceed from their own nature, or 


whether the divine powers which they worshipped might 
ordain such things. He set out on his way to Asgard, going 
secretly, and clad himself in the likeness of an old man, 
with which he dissembled. But the ^sir were wiser in this 
matter, having second sight; and they saw his journeying 
* before ever he came, and prepared against him deceptions 
of the eye. When he came into the town, he saw there a 
hall so high that he could not easily make out the top of 
it : its thatching was laid with golden shields after the fash- 
ion of a shingled roof. So also says Thjodolfr of Hvin, that 
Valhall was thatched with shields: 

On their backs they let beam, sore battered with stones, 
Odin's hall-shingles, the shrewd sea-farers. 

In the hall-doorway Gylli saw a man juggling with anlaces, 
having seven in the air at one time. This man asked of him 
his name. He called himself Gangleri, and said he had come 
by the paths of the serpent, and prayed for lodging for the 
night, asking : "Who owns the hall?" The other replied 
that it was their king; "and I will attend thee to see him; 
then shalt thou thyself ask him concerning his name;" and 
the man wheeled about before him into the hall, and he 
went after, and straightway the door closed itself on his 
heels. There he saw a great room and much people, some 
with games, some drinking; and some had weapons and 
were fighting. Then he looked about him, and thought 
unbelievable many things which he saw; and he said: 

All the gateways ere one goes out 

Should one scan: 
For 't is uncertain where sit the unfriendly 

On the bench before thee. 


He saw three high-seats, each above the other, and three 
men sat thereon, one on each. And he asked what might 
be the name of those lords. He who had conducted him in 
answered that the one who sat on the nethermost high-seat 
was a king, ^^and his name is Harr;' but the next is named 
Jafnharr;* and he who is uppermost is called Thridi."' 
Then Harr asked the newcomer whether his errand were 
more than for the meat and drink which were always at his 
command, as for every one there in the Hall of the High 
One. He answered that he first desired to learn whether 
there were any wise man there within. Harr said, that he 
should not escape whole from thence unless he were wiser. 

And stand thou forth who speirest j ^^^^-'^^-^^ 
Who answers, he shall sit. 

III. Gangleri began his questioning thus: "Who is fore- 
most, or oldest, of all the gods ? " Harr answered : '' He is 
called in our speech Allfather, but in the Elder Asgard he 
had twelve names: one is Allfather; the second is Lord, 
or Lord of Hosts ; the third is Nikarr, or Spear-Lord ; the 
fourth is Nikudr, or Striker; the fifth is Knower of Many 
Things; the sixth, FulfiUer of Wishes; the seventh, Far- 
Speaking One; the eighth. The Shaker, or He that Putteth 
the Armies to Flight; the ninth. The Burner; the tenth, 
The Destroyer; the eleventh. The Protector; the twelfth. 

Then asked Gangleri: "Where is this god, or what 
power hath he, or what hath he wrought that is a glori- 
ous deed?" Harr made answer: "He lives throughout all 
ages and governs all his realm, and directs all things, great 

« High. * EquaUy High. » Third. 



and small." Then said Jafnharr: "He fashioned heaven 
and earth and air, and all things which are in them." Then 
spake Thridi: "The greatest of all is this: that he made 
man, and gave him the spirit, which shall live and never 
perish, though the flesh-frame rot to mould, or burn to 
ashes; and all men shall live, such as are just in action, and 
be with himself in the place called Gimle. But evil men go 
to Hel and thence down to the Misty Hel ; and that is down 
in the ninth world." Then said Gangleri: "What did he 
before heaven and earth were made?" And Harr answered: 
"He was then with the Rime-Giants." 

IV. Gangleri said: "What was the beginning, or how 
began it, or what was before it ? " Harr answered : '* As is 
told in Voluspa: 

Erst was the age when nothing was: 
Nor sand nor sea, nor chilling stream-waves; 
Earth was not found, nor Ether-Heaven, — 
A Yawning Gap, but grass was none." 

Then said Jafnharr: "It was many ages before the earth 
was shaped that the Mist- World was made; and midmost 
within it lies the well that is called Hvergelmir, from which 
spring the rivers called Svol, Gunnthra, Fjorm, Fimbul- 
thul, Slidr and Hrid, Sylgr and Ylgr, Vid, Leiptr; GjoU is 
hard by Hel-gates." And Thridi said: "Yet first was the 
world in the southern region, which was named Muspell; 
it is light and hot; that region is glowing and burning, and 
impassable to such as are outlanders and have not their 
holdings there. He who sits there at the land's-end, to 
defend the land, is called Surtr; he brandishes a flaming 


sword, and at the end of the world he shall go forth and 
harry, and overcome all the gods, and burn all the world 
with fire; thus is said in V'dluspa: 

Surtr fares from the south with switch-eating flame, — 
On his sword shimmers the sun of the War-Gods; 

The rock-crags crash; the fiends are reeling; 

Heroes tread Hel-way; Heaven is cloven." 

V. Gangleri asked : " How were things wrought, ere the 
races were and the tribes of men increased ? " Then said 
Harr: "The streams called Ice-waves, those which were so 
long come from the fountain-heads that the yeasty venom 
upon them had hardened like the slag that runs out of the 
fire, — these then became ice; and when the ice halted and 
ceased to run, then it froze over above. But the drizzling 
rain that rose from the venom congealed to rime, and the 
rime increased, frost over frost, each over the other, even 
into Ginnungagap, the Yawning Void." Then spake Jafn- 
harr: '* Ginnungagap, which faced toward the northern 
quarter, became filled with heaviness, and masses of ice 
and rime, and from within, drizzling rain and gusts; but 
the southern part of the Yawning Void was lighted by those 
sparks and glowing masses which flew out of Muspell- 
heim." And Thridi said: "Just as cold arose out of Nifl- 
heim, and all terrible things, so also all that looked toward 
Muspellheim became hot and glowing; but Ginnungagap 
was as mild as windless air, and when the breath of heat 
met the rime, so that it melted and dripped, life was quick- 
ened from the yeast-drops, by the power of that which 
sent the heat, and became a man's form. And that man is 
named Ymir, but the Rime-Giants call him Aurgelmir; 




and thence are come the races of the Rime-Giants, as it 

says in Vdluspa the Less: 

All the witches spring from Witolf, 

All the warlocks are of Willharm, 

And the spell-singers spring from Swarthead ; 

All the ogres of Ymir come. 

But concerning this says Vafthrudnir the giant: 

Out of the Ice-waves issued venom-drops. 
Waxing until a giant was; 
Thence are our kindred come all together, — 
So it is they are savage forever." 

Then said Gangleri : " How did the races grow thence, or 
after what fashion was it brought to pass that more men 
came into being? Or do ye hold him God, of whom ye 
but now spake ? " And Jafnharr answered : " By no means 
do we acknowledge him God; he was evil and all his kin- 
dred : we call them Rime-Giants. Now it is said that when 
he slept, a sweat came upon him, and there grew under his 
left hand a man and a woman, and one of his feet begat 
a son with the other; and thus the races are come; these 
are the Rime-Giants. The old Rime-Giant, him we call 

VI. Then said Gangleri : '* Where dwelt Ymir, or wherein 
did he find sustenance?" Harr answered: *' Straightway 
after the rime dripped, there sprang from it the cow called 
Audumla; four streams of milk ran from her udders, and 
she nourished Ymir." Then asked Gangleri: "Where- 
withal was the cow nourished ? " And Harr made answer : 


^^ She licked the ice-blocks, which were salty ; and the first 
day that she licked the blocks, there came forth from the 
blocks in the evening a man's hair; the second day, a man's 
head ; the third day the whole man was there. He is named 
Buri: he was fair of feature, great and mighty. He begat 
a son called Borr, who wedded the woman named Bestla, 
daughter of Bolthorn the giant; and they had three sons: 
one was Odin, the second Vili, the third Ve. And this is 
my belief, that he, Odin, with his brothers, must be ruler 
of heaven and earth ; we hold that he must be so called ; so 
is that man called whom we know to be mightiest and most 
worthy of honor, and ye do well to let him be so called." 

VII. Then said Gangleri : " What covenant was between 
them, or which was the stronger?" And Harr answered: 
" The sons of Borr slew Ymir the giant ; lo, where he fell 
there gushed forth so much blood out of his wounds that 
with it they drowned all the race of the Rime-Giants, save 
that one, whom giants call Bergelmir, escaped with his 
household; he went upon his ship,' and his wife with him, 
and they were safe there. And from them are come the 
races of the Rime-Giants, as is said here : 

Untold ages ere earth was shapen. 

Then was Bergelmir born; 
That first I recall, how the famous wise giant 

On the deck of the ship was laid down." 

VIII. Then said Gangleri: "What was done then by 
Borr's sons, if thou believe that they be gods ? " Harr re- 
plied: "In this matter there is no little to be said. They took 

' Literally, mill-bench or mortar. 


Ymir and bore him into the middle of the Yawning Void, 
and made of him the earth : of his blood the sea and the 
waters ; the land was made of his flesh, and the crags of 
his bones ; gravel and stones they fashioned from his teeth 
and his grinders and from those bones that were broken." 
And Jafnharr said: "Of the blood, which ran and welled 
forth freely out of his wounds, they made the sea, when 
they had formed and made firm the earth together, and laid 
the sea in a ring round about her; and it may well seem a 
hard thing to most men to cross over it." Then said Thridi : 
"They took his skull also, and made of it the heaven, and 
set it up over the earth with four corners ; and under each 
corner they set a dwarf: the names of these are East, West, 
North, and South. Then they took the glowing embers and 
sparks that burst forth and had been cast out of Muspell- 
heim, and set them in the midst of the Yawning Void, in 
the heaven, both above and below, to illumine heaven and 
earth. They assigned places to all fires : to some in heaven ; 
some wandered free under the heavens; nevertheless, to 
these also they gave a place, and shaped them courses. It 
is said in old songs, that from these the days were reck- 
oned, and the tale of years told, as is said in Voluspa: 

The sun knew not where she had housing; 
The moon knew not what might he had; 
The stars knew not where stood their places. 
Thus was it ere the earth was fashioned." 

Then said Gangleri: "These are great tidings which I now 
hear; that is a wondrous great piece of craftsmanship, and 
cunningly made. How was the earth contrived?" And Harr 
answered: "She is ring-shaped without, and round about 



her without lieth the deep sea; and along the strand of that 
sea they gave lands to the races of giants for habitation. 
But on the inner earth they made a citadel round about the 
world against the hostility of the giants, and for their cita- 
del they raised up the brows of Ymir the giant, and called 
that place Midgard. They took also his brain and cast it in 
the air, and made from it the clouds, as is here said: 

Of Ymir's flesh the earth was fashioned. 

And of his sweat the sea; 
Crags of his bones, trees of his hair. 

And of his skull the sky. 
Then of his brows the blithe gods made 

Midgard for sons of men; 
And of his brain the bitter-mooded 

Clouds were all created." 

IX. Then said Gangleri: "Much indeed they had accom- 
plished then, methinks, when earth and heaven were made, 
and the sun and the constellations of heaven were fixed, 
and division was made of days ; now whence come the men 
that people the world ? " And Harr answered : " When the 
sons of Borr were walking along the sea-strand, they found 
two trees, and took up the trees and shaped men of them : 
the first gave them spirit and life; the second, wit and feel- 
ing; the third, form, speech, hearing, and sight. They gave 
them clothing and names : the male was called Askr, and 
the female Embia, and of them was mankind begotten, 
which received a dwelling-place under Midgard. Next they 
made for themselves in the middle of the world a city which 
is called Asgard ; men call it Troy. There dwelt the gods 
and their kindred; and many tidings and tales of it have 


come to pass both on earth and aloft. There is one abode 
called Hlidskjalf, and when Allfather sat in the high- seat 
there, he looked out over the whole world and saw every 
man's acts, and knew all things which he saw. His wife 
was called Frigg daughter of Fjorgvinn ; and of their blood 
is come that kindred which we call the races of the JEsity 
that have peopled the Elder Asgard, and those kingdoms 
which pertain to it; and that is a divine race. For this rea- 
son must he be called Allfather: because he is father of all 
the gods and of men, and of all that was fulfilled of him 
and of his might. The Earth was his daughter and his wife; 
on her he begot the first son, which is Asa-Thor : strength 
and prowess attend him, wherewith he overcometh all 
living things. 

X. " Norfi or Narfi is the name of a giant that dwelt in J6- 
tunheim : he had a daughter called Night ; she was swarthy 
and dark, as befitted her race. She was given to the man 
named Naglfari ; their son was Audr. Afterward she was 
wedded to him that was called Annarr; Jord* was their 
daughter. Last of all Dayspring had her, and he was of the 
race of the iEsir; their son was Day: he was radiant and 
fair after his father. Then Allfather took Night, and Day 
her son, and gave to them two horses and two chariots, 
and sent them up into the heavens, to ride round about the 
earth every two half-days. Night rides before with the horse 
named Frosty-Mane, and on each morning he bedews the 
earth with the foam from his bit. The horse that Day has 
is called Sheen-Mane, and he illumines all the air and the 
earth from his mane." 

' Earth! 


XI. Then said Gangleri : ** How does he govern the course 
of the sun or of the moon?" Harr answered: "A certain 
man was named Mundilfari, who had two children; they 
were so fair and comely that he called his son Moon, and 
his daughter Sun, and wedded her to the man called Glenr. 
But the gods were incensed at that insolence, and took the 
brother and sister, and set them up in the heavens; they 
caused Sun to drive those horses that drew the chariot of 
the sun, which the gods had fashioned, for the world's illu- 
mination, from that glowing stuff which flew out of Mus- 
pellheim. Those horses are called thus : Early- Wake and 
All-Strong; and under the shoulders of the horses the gods 
set two wind-bags to cool them, but in some records that 
is called * iron-coolness.' Moon steers the course of the 
moon, and determines its waxing and waning. He took from 
the earth two children, called Bil and Hjuki, they that went 
from the well called Byrgir, bearing on their shoulders the 
cask called Saegr, and the pole Simul. Their father is named 
Vidfinnr. These children follow Moon, as may be seen 
from the earth." 

XII. Then said Gangleri: "The sun fares swiftly, and 
almost as if she were afraid : she could not hasten her course 
any the more if she feared her destruction." Then Harr 
made answer: "It is no marvel that she hastens furiously: 
close Cometh he that seeks her, and she has no escape save 
to run away." Then said Gangleri: "Who is he that causes 
her this disquiet?" Harr replied: "It is two wolves; and 
he that runs after her is called Skoll; she fears him, and he 
shall take her. But he that leaps before her is called Hati 
Hrodvitnisson. He is eager to seize the moon; and so it 
must be." Then said Gangleri: "What is the race of the 


wolves?" Harr answered: "A witch dwells to the east of 
Midgard, in the forest called Ironwood : in that wood dwell 
the troll-women, who are known as Iron wood- Women. 
The old witch bears many giants for sons, and all in the 
shape of wolves ; and from this source are these wolves 
sprung. The saying runs thus : from this race shall come 
one that shall be mightiest of all, he that is named Moon- 
Hound; he shall be filled with the flesh of all those men 
that die, and he shall swallow the moon, and sprinkle with 
blood the heavens and all the air; thereof shall the sun 
lose her shining, and the winds in that day shall be unquiet 
and roar on every side. So it says in Foluspa: 

Eastward dwells the Old One in Ironwood, 
And there gives birth to Fenrir's brethren; 
There shall spring of them all a certain one. 
The moon's taker in troll's likeness. 

He is filled with flesh of fey men. 

Reddens the gods' seats with ruddy blood-gouts; 

Swart becomes sunshine in summers after. 

The weather all shifty. Wit ye yet, or what ? " 

XIII, Then said Gangleri: "What is the way to heaven 
from earth ? " Then Harr answered, and laughed aloud : 
"Now, that is not wisely asked; has it not been told thee, 
that the gods made a bridge from earth to heaven, called 
Bifrost? Thou must have seen it; it may be that ye call 
it * rainbow.' It is of three colors, and very strong, and 
made with cunning and with more magic art than other 
works of craftsmanship. But strong as it is, yet must it be 
broken, when the sons of Muspell shall go forth harrying 


and ride it, and swim their horses over great rivers ; thus 
they shall proceed." Then said Gangleri: "To my think- 
ing the gods did not build the bridge honestly, seeing that it 
could be broken, and they able to make it as they would." 
Then Harr replied : "The gods are not deserving of reproof 
because of this work of skill : a good bridge is Bifrost, but 
nothing in this world is of such nature that it may be relied 
on when the sons of Muspell go a-harrying." 

XIV. Then said Gangleri : " What did AUfather then do 
when Asgard was made?" Harr answered: "In the be- 
ginning he established rulers, and bade them ordain fates 
with him, and give counsel concerning the planning of 
the town ; that was in the place which is called Ida-field, in 
the midst of the town. It was their first work to make that 
court in which their twelve seats stand, and another, the 
high-seat which AUfather himself has. That house is the 
best-made of any on earth, and the greatest ; without and 
within, it is all like one piece of gold; men call it Glads- 
heim. They made also a second hall : that was a shrine 
which the goddesses had, and it was a very fair house; men 
call it Vingolf. Next they fashioned a house, wherein they 
placed a forge, and made besides a hammer, tongs, and 
anvil, and by means of these, all other tools. After this they 
smithied metal and stone and wood, and wrought so abun- 
dantly that metal which is called gold, that they had all their 
household ware and all dishes of gold; and that time is 
called the Age of Gold, before it was spoiled by the com- 
ing of the Women ,;c ven those who came out of Jotunheim. 
Next after this, the gods enthroned themselves in their 
seats and held judgment, and called to mind whence the 
dwarves had quickened in the mould and underneath in the 


earth, even as do maggots in flesh. The dwarves had first 
received shape and life in the flesh of Ymir, and were then 
maggots ; but by decree of the gods had become conscious 
with the intelligence of men, and had human shape. And 
nevertheless they dwell in the earth and in stones. Mod- 
sognir was the first, and Durinn the second ; so it says in 

Then strode all the mighty to the seats of judgment. 

The gods most holy, and together held counsel, 

Who should of dwarves shape the peoples 

From the bloody surge and the Blue One's bones. 

They made many in man's likeness. 

Dwarves in the earth, as Durinn said. 

And these, says the Sibyl, are their names : 

N]^i and Nidi, Nordri and Sudri^ 

Austri, Vestri, Althjofr, Dvalinn; 

Nar, Nainn, Nipingr, Dainn, 

Bifurr, Bafurr, Bomburr, Nori, 

Cri, Onarr, Oinn, Mjodvitnir, 

Viggr and Gandalfr, Vindalfr, Thorinn, 

Fili, Kili, Fundinn, Vali; 

Thror, Throinn, Thekkr, Litr and Vitr, 

Nyr, Nyradr, Rekkr, Radsvidr. 

And these also are dwarves and dwell in stones, but the 
first in mould: 

Draupnir, Dolgthvari, 
Horr, Hugstari, Hledjolfr, Gloinn; 
Dori, Ori, Dufr, Andvari, 
Heptifili, Harr, Sviarr. 


And these proceed from Svarinshaugr to Aurvangar on 

Joruplain, and thence is Lovarr come; these are their 

names : 

Skirfir, Virfir Skafidr Aii 

Alfr, Yngvi, Eikinskjaldi, 

Fair, Frosti, Fidr, Ginnarr." 

XV. Then said Gangleri : " Where is the chief abode or 
holy place of the gods?" Harr answered: "That is at the 
Ash of Yggdrasill; there the gods must give judgment 
every day." Then Gangleri asked : " What is to be said con- 
cerning that place? "Then said Jafnharr: "The Ash is 
greatest of all trees and best : its limbs spread out over all 
the world and stand above heaven. Three roots of the tree 
uphold it and stand exceeding broad: one is among the 
^sir; another among the Rime-Giants, in that place where 
aforetime was the Yawning Void; the third stands over 
Niflheim, and under that root is H vergelmir, and Nidhoggr 
gnaws the root from below. But under that root which 
turns toward the Rime-Giants is Mimir's Well, wherein 
wisdom and understanding are stored; and he is called 
Mimir, who keeps the well. He is full of ancient lore, since 
he drinks of the well from the Gjallar-Horn. Thither came 
AUfather and craved one drink of the well ; but he got it 
not until he had laid his eye in pledge. So says Volu$pa: 

All know I, Odin, where the eye thou hiddest, 
In the wide-renowned well of Mimir; 
Mimir drinks mead every morning 
From Valfather's wage. Wit ye yet, or what ? 

The third root of the Ash stands in heaven; and under 


that root is the well which is very holy, that is called the 
Well of Urdr; there the gods hold their tribunal. Each day 
the -^sir ride thither up over Bifrost, which is also called 
the iEsir's Bridge. These are the names of the -^sir's 
steeds : Sleipnir ' is best, which Odin has; he has eight feet. 
The second is Gladr/ the third Gyllir,^ the fourth Glenr/ 
the fifth Skeidbrimir,^ the sixth Silfrintoppr,* the seventh 
Sinir/ the eighth Gisl,* the ninth Falhofnir,' the tenth 
Gulltoppr,'° the eleventh Lettfeti." Baldr's horse was burnt 
with him; and Thor walks to the judgment, and wades 
those rivers which are called thus: 

Kormt and Ormt and the Kerlaugs twain, 

Them shall Thor wade 
Every day when he goes to doom 

At Ash Yggdrasill; 
For the iEsir's Bridge burns all with flame. 

And the holy waters howl." 

Then said Gangleri: " Does fire burn over Bifrostf *' Harr 
replied: "That which thou seest to be red in the bow is 
burning fire; the Hill-Giants might go up to heaven, if pas- 
sage on Bifrost were open to all those who would cross. 
There are many fair places in heaven, and over everything 
there a godlike watch is kept. A hall stands there, fair, 
under the ash by the well, and out of that hall come three 
maids, who are called thus: Urdr,"Verdandi,"Skuld;** these 
maids determine the period of men's lives: we call them 

» The Slipper. » Bright or Glad. » Golden. -• The Starer. 

* Fleet Courser. ^ Silver-top. ' Sinewy. • Beam, Ray. 

9 Hairy-hoof. »° Gold-top. " Light-stepper. " Past. 

'3 Present. ^* Future. 


Norns; but there are many norns: those who come to each 
child that is born, to appoint his life; these are of the race 
of the gods, but the second are of the Elf-people, and the 
third are of the kindred of the dwarves, as it is said here : 

Most sundered in birth I say the Norns are; 

They claim no common kin: 
Some arc of iEsir-kin, some are of Elf-kind, 

Some are Dvalinn's daughters." 

Then said Gangleri: "If the Norns determine the weirds 
of men, then they apportion exceeding unevenly, seeing 
that some have a pleasant and luxurious life, but others 
have little worldly goods or fame; some have long life, 
others short." Harr said : " Good norns and of honorable 
race appoint good life; but those men that suffer evil for- 
tunes are governed by evil norns." 

XVI. Then said Gangleri : ** What more mighty wonders 
are to be told of the Ash?" Harr replied: "Much is to be 
told of it. An eagle sits in the limbs of the Ash, and he 
has understanding of many a thing; and between his eyes 
sits the hawk that is called Vedrfolnir. The squirrel called 
Ratatoskr runs up and down the length of the Ash, bear- 
ing envious words between the eagle and Nidhoggr; and 
four harts run in the limbs of the Ash and bite the leaves. 
They are called thus: Dainn, Dvalinn, Duncyrr, Dura- 
thror. Moreover, so many serpents are in Hvcrgelmir with 
Nidhoggr, that no tongue can tell them, as is here said : 

Ash Yggdrasill suffers anguish. 
More than men know of: 


The stag bites above; on the side it rotteth, 
And Nidhoggr gnaws from below. 

And it is further said: 

More serpents lie under Yggdrasill's stock 
Than every unwise ape can think: . 

Goinn and Moinn (they 're Grafvitnir's sons), 
Grabakr and Grafvolludr; 

dfnir and Svafnir I think shall aye 
Tear the trunk's twigs. 

It is further said that these Norns who dwell by the Well 
of Urdr take water of the well every day, and with it that 
clay which lies about the well, and sprinkle it over the 
Ash, to the end that its limbs shall not wither nor rot; for 
that water is so holy that all things which come there into 
the well become as white as the film which lies within the 
egg-shell, — as is here said: 

I know an Ash standing called Yggdrasill, 
A high tree sprinkled with snow-white clay; 
Thence come the dews in the dale that fall — 
It stands ever green above Urdr's Well. 

That dew which falls from it onto the earth is called by men 
honey-dew, and thereon are bees nourished. Two fowls 
are fed in Urdr's Well: they are called Swans, and from 
those fowls has come the race of birds which is so called." 

XVII. Then said Gangleri: "Thou knowest many tidings 
to tell of the heaven. What chief abodes are there more 
than at Urdr's Well ?" Harr said: "Many places are there. 


and glorious. That which is called Alfheimr' is one, where 
dwell the peoples called Light-Elves ; but the Dark-Elves 
dwell down in the earth, and they are unlike in appearance, 
but by far more unlike in nature.The Light-Elves are fairer 
to look upon than the sun, but the Dark-Elves are blacker 
than pitch. Then there is also in that place the abode called 
Breidablik,' and there is not in heaven a fairer dwelling. 
There, too, is the one called Glitnir,' whose walls, and all 
its posts and pillars, are of red gold, but its roof of silver. 
There is also the abode called Himinbjorg;^ it stands at 
heaven's end by the bridge-head, in the place where Bifrost 
joins heaven. Another great abode is there, which is named 
Valaskjalf;' Odin possesses that dwelling; the gods made 
it and thatched it with sheer silver, and in this hall is the 
Hlidskjalf,* the high-seat so called. Whenever Allfather 
sits in that seat, he surveys all lands. At the southern end 
of heaven is that hall which is fairest of all, and brighter 
than the sun ; it is called Gimle.^ It shall stand when both 
heaven and earth have departed; and good men and of 
righteous conversation shall dwell therein : so it is said in 
Voluspa : 

A hall I* know standing than the sun fairer. 
Thatched with gold in Gimle bright; 
There shall dwell the doers of righteousness 
And ever and ever enjoy delight." 

Then said Gangleri : " What shall guard this place, when 
the flame of Surtr shall consume heaven and earth ? " Harr 

' £lf-home. * Broad-gleaming. * Glittering. 

* Heaven-crag. * Seat or shelf of the Fallen. * Gate-seat. 

' Either dative of i//wi// = Heaven (?) (Cl.-Vig.), or Gem-decked (Bugge). 


answered : ^^ It is said that another heaven is to the south- 
ward and upward of this one, and it is called Andlangr;' 
but the third heaven is yet above that, and it is called Vid- 
blainn,' and in that heaven we think this abode is. But we 
believe that none but Light-Elves inhabit these mansions 


XVHI. Then said Gangleri :" Whence comes the wind? 
It is strong, so that it stirs great seas, and it swells fire; 
but, strong as it is, none may see it, for it is wonderfully 
shapen." Then said Harr: "That I am well able to tell 
thee. At the northward end of heaven sits the giant called 
Hrxs velgr : he has the plumes of an eagle, and when he 
stretches his wings for flight, then the wind rises from 
under his wings, as is here said : 

Hraesvelgr hight he who sits at heaven's ending. 

Giant in eagle's coat; 
From his wings, they say, the wind cometh 

All men-folk over." 

XIX. Then said Gangleri: " Why is there so much differ- 
ence, that summer should be hot, but winter cold ? " Harr 
answered : " A wise man would not ask thus, seeing that 
all are able to tell this; but if thou alone art become so 
slight of understanding as not to have heard it, then I will 
yet permit that thou shouldst rather ask foolishly once, 
than that thou shouldst be kept longer in ignorance of a 
thing which it is proper to know. He is called Svasudr' who 
is father of Summer; and he is of pleasant nature, so that 
from his name whatsoever is pleasant is called 'sweet.' 

' Wide-reaching, extensive. * Wide-blue. ' Delightful. 


But the father of Winter is variously called Vindljoni ' or 
Vindsvalr;* he is the son of Vasadr;' and these were kins- 
men grim and chilly-breasted, and Winter has their tem- 

XX. Then said Gangleri: "Who are the iEsir, they in 
whom it behoves men to believe?" Harr answered: "The 
divine ^sir are twelve." Then said Jafnharr: "Not less 
holy are the Asynjur, the goddesses, and they are of no 
less authority." Then said Thridi: "Odin is highest and 
eldest of the ^sir: he rules all things, and mighty as 
are the other gods, they all serve him as children obey a 
father. Frigg is his wife, and she knows all the fates of 
men, though she speaks no prophecy, — as is said here, 
when Odin himself spake with him of the ^sir whom men 
call Loki: 

Thou art mad now, Loki, and reft of mind, — 
Why, Loki, leav'st thou not off? 

Frigg, methinks, is wise in all fates. 
Though herself say them not ! 

Odin is called Allfather because he is father of all the 
gods. He is also called Father of the Slain, because all 
those that fall in battle are the sons of his adoption ; for 
them he appoints ValhalPand Vingolf,' and they are then 
called Champions. He is also called God of the Hanged, 
God of Gods, God of Cargoes ; and he has also been named 
in many more ways, after he had come to King Geirrodr: 

« Wind-bringer ? (Simrock). • Wind-chill. 

» Wet and sleety (Cl.-Vig.). * Hall of the Slain. 

* Friendly Floor. 


We were called Grimr and Gangleri, 

Herjann, Hjalmberi; 
Thekkr, Thridi, Thudr, Udr, 

Helblindi, Harr. 

Sadr, Svipall, Sann-getall, 

Herteitr, Hnikarr; 
Bileygr, Baleygr, Bolverkr, Fjolnir, 

Grimnir, Glapsvidr, Fjolsvidr. 

Sidhottr, Sidskeggr, Sigfodr, Hnikudr, 

Alfodr, Atridr, Farmatyr; 
Oski, Omi, Jafnharr, Biflindi, 

Gondlir, Harbardr. 

Svidurr, Svidrir, Jalkr, Kjalarr, Vidurr, 

Thror, Yggr, Thundr; 
Vakr, Skilfingr, Vafudr, Hroptat^r, 

Gautr, Verat^r." 

Then said Gangleri : '* Exceeding many names have ye 
given him ; and, by my faith, it must indeed be a goodly wit 
that knows all the lore and the examples of what chances 
have brought about each of these names." Then Harr made 
answer: "It is truly a vast sum of knowledge to gather' 
together and set forth fittingly. But it is briefest to tell thee 
that most of his names have been given him by reason of 
this chance : there being so many branches of tongues in 
the world, all peoples believed that it was needful for them 
to turn his name into their own tongue, by which they 
might the better invoke him and entreat him on their own 

' Literally, to rake into rows. 


behalf. But some occasions for these names arose in his 
wanderings ; and that matter is recorded in tales. Nor canst 
thou ever be called a wise man if thou shalt not be able 
to tell of those great events." 

XXI. Then said Gangleri : " What are the names of the 
other iEsir, or what is their office, or what deeds of renown 
have they done ? " Harr answered : " Thor is the foremost 
of them, he that is called Thor of the iEsir, or Oku-Thor; 
he is strongest of all the gods and men. He has his realm in 
the place called Thrudvangar/and his hall is called Bilskir- 
nir;' in that hall are five hundred rooms and forty. That 
is the greatest house that men know of; it is thus said in 

Five hundred floors and more than forty, 

So reckon I Bilskirnir with bending ways; 

Of those houses that I know of hall-roofed. 
My son's I know the most. 

Thor has two he-goats, that are called Tooth-Gnasher and 
Tooth-Gritter,and a chariot wherein he drives, and the he- 
goats draw the chariot ; therefore is he called Oku-Thor.' 
He has also three things of great price : one is the ham- 
mer Mjollnir, which the Rime-Giants and the Hill-Giants 
know, when it is raised on high; and that is no wonder, — 
it has bruised many a skull among their fathers or their 
kinsmen. He has a second costly thing, best of all : the 

* Plains of strength. « From the flashing of light (Cl.-Vig.). 

'According to Cleasby-Vigfusson, a popular etymology. '^O/^m is not to be 
derived from aka (to drive), but is rather of Finnish origin, Ukko being the 
Thunder-god of the Chudic tribes.'* Jonsson, however, allows Snorri's etymol- 
ogy to stand. 


girdle of might ; and when he clasps it about him, then the 
godlike strength within him is increased by half. Yet a 
third thing he has, in which there is much virtue : his iron 
gloves ; he cannot do without them when he uses his ham- 
mer-shaft. But no one is so wise that he can tell all his 
mighty works ; yet I can tell thee so much tidings of him 
that the hours would be spent before all that I know were 

XXII. Then said Gangleri: "I would ask tidings of more 
^sir." Harr replied: "The second son of Odin is Baldr, 
and good things are to be said of him. He is best, and all 
praise him ; he is so fair of feature, and so bright, that light 
shines from him. A certain herb is so white that it is likened 
to Baldr's brow; of all grasses it is whitest, and by it thou 
mayest judge his fairness, both in hair and in body. He is 
the wisest of the iEsir, and the fairest-spoken and most 
gracious ; and that quality attends him, that none may gain- 
say his judgments. He dwells in the place called Breida- 
blik,' which is in heaven ; in that place may nothing un- 
clean be, even as is said here: 

Breidablik 't is called, where Baldr has 

A hall made for himself: 
In that land where I know lie 

Fewest baneful runes. 

XXIII. "The third among the -^sir is he that is called 
Njordr: he dwells in heaven, in the abode called Noatun. 
He rules the course of the wind, and stills sea and fire ; on 
him shall men call for voyages and for hunting. He is so 

' Broad-gleaming. 


prosperous and abounding in wealth, that he niay give them 
great plenty of lands or of gear; and him shall men invoke 
for such things. Njordr is not of the race of the iEsir: he 
was reared in the land of the Vanir, but the Vanir delivered 
him as hostage to the gods, and took for hostage in ex- 
change him that men call Hoenir; he became an atonement 
between the gods and the Vanir. Njordr has to wife the 
woman called Skadi, daughter of Thjazi the giant. Skadi 
would fain dwell in the abode which her father had had, 
which is on certain mountains, in the place called Thrym- 
heimr; but Njordr would be near the sea. They made a 
compact on these terms: they should be nine nights in 
Thrymheimr, but the second nine at Noatun. But when 
Njordr came down from the mountain back to Noatun, he 
sang this lay : 

Loath were the hills to me, I was not long in them, 

Nights only nine; 
To me the wailing of wolves seemed ill, 

After the song of swans. 

Then Skadi sang this: 

Sleep could I never on the sea-beds. 
For the wailing of waterfowl ; 

He wakens me, who comes from the deep — 
The sea-mew every morn. 

Then Skadi went up onto the mountain, and dwelt in 
Thrymheimr. And she goes for the more part on snow- 
shoes and with a bow and arrow, and shoots beasts; she is 
called Snowshoe- Goddess or Lady of the Snowshoes. So 
it is said: 


Thrymheimr 't is called, where Thjazi dwelt, 

He the hideous giant; 
But now Skadi abides, pure bride of the gods. 

In her father's ancient freehold. 

XXIV. '* Njordr in Noatun begot afterward two children : 
the son was called Freyr, and the daughter Freyja; they 
were fair of face and mighty. Freyr is the most renowned 
of the ^sir; he rules over the rain and the shining of the 
sun, and therewithal the fruit of the earth; and it is good 
to call on him for fruitful seasons and peace. He governs 
also the prosperity of men. But Freyja is the most re- 
nowned of the goddesses ; she has in heaven the dwelling 
called Folkvangr,' and wheresoever she rides to the strife, 
she has one-half of the kill, and Odin half, as is here said : 

Folkvangr *t is called, where Freyja rules 

Degrees of seats in the hall; 
Half the kill she keepeth each day. 

And half Odin hath. 

Her hall Sessrumnir* is great and fair. When she goes 
forth, she drives her cats and sits in a chariot; she is most 
conformable to man's prayers, and from her name comes 
the name of honor, Fru, by which noblewomen ^re called. 
Songs of love are well-pleasing to her; it is good to call 
on her for furtherance in love." 

XXV. Then said Gangleri: "Great in power do these 
^sir seem to me; nor is it a marvel, that much authority 
attends you who are said to possess understanding of the 
gods, and know which one men should call on for what 

' Folk-plain, Host-plain. ^ Seat-roomy. 


boon soever. Or are the gods yet more?" Harr said : '* Yet 
remains that one of the -^sir who is called Tyr : he is most 
daring, and best in stoutness of heart, and he has much 
authority over victory in battle; it is good for men of valor 
to invoke him. It is a proverb, that he is T^r-valiant, who 
surpasses other men and does not waver. He is wise, so 
that it is also said, that he that is wisest is Tyr-prudent. 
This is one token of his daring: when the iEsir enticed 
Fenris-Wolf to take upon him the fetter Gleipnir, the wolf 
did not believe them, that they would loose him, until they 
laid Tyr's hand into his mouth as a pledge. But when the 
iEsir would not loose him, then he bit off the hand at the 
place now called 'the wolPs joint;* and Tyr is one-handed, 
and is not called a reconciler of men. 

XXVI. "One is called Bragi: he is renowned for wisdom, 
and most of all for fluency of speech and skill with words. 
He knows most of skaldship, and after him skaldship is 
called hragr^ and from his name that one is called bragr- 
man or -woman, who possesses eloquence surpassing oth- 
ers, of women or of men. His wife is Idunn : she guards in 
her chest of ash those apples which the gods must taste 
whensoever they grow old; and then they all become young, 
and so it shall be even unto the Weird of the Gods." Then 
said Gangleri : " A very great thing, methinks, the gods en- 
trust to the watchfulness and good faith of Idunn." Then 
said Harr, laughing loudly: "'T was near being desperate 
once; I may be able to tell thee of it, but now thou shalt 
first hear more of the names of the -^sir. 

' BragTy as a noun, means "poetry ;" as an adjective, it seems to mean "fore- 
most " (Cl.-Vig.). Thus the phrase hragr karla seems to be "foremost of men,** 
with apparent reference to poetic preeminence. 


XXVII. "Heimdallr is the name of one: he is called the 
White God. He is great and holy; nine maids, all sis- 
ters, bore him for a son. He is also called Hallinskidi ' 
and Gullintanni; ' his teeth were of gold, and his horse is 
called Gold-top. He dwells in the place called Himinbjorg,' 
hard by Bifrost : he is the warder of the gods, and sits there 
by heaven's end to guard the brTdge from the Hill-Giants. 
He needs less sleep than a bird ; he sees equally well night 
and day a hundred leagues from him, and hears how grass 
grows on the earth or wool on sheep, and everything that 
has a louder sound. He has that trumpet which is called 
Gjallar-Horn, and its blast is heard throughout all worlds. 
Heimdallr's sword is called Head. It is said further: 

Himinbjorg 't is called, where Heimdallr, they say. 

Aye has his housing; 
There the gods' sentinel drinks in his snug hall 

Gladly good mead. 

And furthermore, he himself says in Heimdalar-galdr: 

I am of nine mothers the offspring. 
Of sisters nine am I the son. 

XXVIII. "One of theiEsir is named Hodr: he is blind. 
He is of sufficient strength, but the gods would desire that 
no occasion should rise of naming this god, for the work of 
his hands shall long be held in memory among gods and 

XXIX. " Vidarr is the name of one, the silent god. He has 

« Ram (Cl.-Vig.). * Golden-teeth. » Heaven-fells. 


a thick shoe. He is nearly as strong as Thor; in him the 
gods have great trust in all struggles. 

XXX. " One is called Ali or Vali, son of Odin and Rindr : 
he is daring in fights, and a most fortunate marksman. 

XXXI. "One is called UUr, son of Sif, step-son of Thor; 
he is so excellent a bowman, and so swift on snowshoes, 
that none may contend with him. He is also fair of aspect 
and has the accomplishments of a warrior; it is well to call 
on him in single-combats. 

XXXII. "Forseti is the name of the son of Baldr and 
Nanna daughter of Nep: he has that hall in heaven which 
is called Glitnir. All that come to him with such quarrels 
as arise out of law-suits, all these return thence reconciled. 
That is the best seat of judgment among gods and men ; 
thus it is said here: 

A hall is called Glitnir, with gold 't is pillared. 
And with silver thatched the same; 

There Forseti bides the full day through. 
And puts to sleep all suits. 

XXXIII. "Also numbered among the iEsir is he whom 
some call the mischief-monger of the ^sir, and the first 
father of falsehoods, and blemish of all gods and men : he 
is named Loki or Loptr, son of Farbauti the giant; his 
mother was Laufey or Nal; his brothers are Byleistr and 
Helblindi. Loki is beautiful and comely to look upon, evil 
in spirit, very fickle in habit. He surpassed other men in 
that wisdom which is called ^ sleight,' and had artifices for 


all occasions; he would ever bring the iEsir into great 
hardships, and then get them out with crafty counsel. His 
wife was called Sigyn, their son Nari or Narfi. 

XXXIV. "Yet more children had Loki. Angrboda was the 
name of a certain giantess in Jotunheim, with whom Loki 
gat three children : one was Fenris- Wolf, the second Jor- 
mungandr — that is the Midgard Serpent, — the third is 
Hel. But when the gods learned that this kindred was nour- 
ished in Jotunheim, and when the gods perceived by pro- 
phecy that from this kindred great misfortune should befall 
them ; and since it seemed to all that there was great pros- 
pect of ill — (first from the mother's blood, and yet worse 
from the father's) — then Allfather sent gods thither to 
take the children and bring them to him. When they came 
to him, straightway he cast the serpent into the deep sea, 
where he lies about all the land ; and this serpent grew so 
greatly that he lies in the midst of the ocean encompass- 
ing all the land, and bites upon his own tail. Hel he cast 
into Niflheim, and gave to her power over nine worlds, to 
apportion all abodes among those that were sent to her: 
that is, men dead of sickness or of old age. She has great 
possessions there; her walls are exceeding high and her 
gates great. Her hall is called Sleet-Cold ; her dish. Hunger; 
Famine is her knife; Idler, her thrall; Sloven, her maid- 
servant ; Pit of Stumbling, her threshold, by which one en- 
ters; Disease, her bed; Gleaming Bale, her bed-hangings. 
She is half blue-black and half flesh-color (by which she 
is easily recognized), and very lowering and fierce. 

The Wolf the iEsir brought up at home, and T/r alone 
dared go to him to give him meat. But when the gods saw 
how much he grew every day, and when all prophecies 


declared that he was fated to be their destruction, then the 
^sir seized upon this way of escape: they made a very 
strong fetter, which they called Laedingr, and brought it 
before the Wolf, bidding him try his strength against the 
fetter. The Wolf thought that no overwhelming odds, and 
let them do with him as they would. The first time the 
Wolf lashed out against it, the fetter broke; so he was 
loosed out of Laedingr. After this, the iEsir made a sec- 
ond fetter, stronger by half, which they called Dromi, and 
bade the Wolf try that fetter, saying he would become very 
famous for strength, if such huge workmanship should not 
suffice to hold him. But the Wolf thought that this fetter 
was very strong; he considered also that strength had in- 
creased in him since the time he broke Laedingr: it came 
into his mind, that he must expose himself to danger, if he 
would become famous. So he let the fetter be laid upon 
him. Now when the ^sir declared themselves ready, the 
Wolf shook himself, dashed the fetter against the earth and 
struggled fiercely with it, spurned against it, and broke the 
fetter, so that the fragments flew far. So he dashed him- 
self out of Dromi. Since then it passes as a proverb,^ to loose 
out of Laedingr,' or *to dash out of Dromi,' when anything 
is exceeding hard. 

"After that the iEsir feared that they should never be 
able to get the Wolf bound. Then Allfather sent him who 
is called Skirnir,Freyr's messenger, down into the region of 
the Black Elves, to certain dwarves, and caused to be made 
the fetter named Gleipnir. It was made of six things: the 
noise a cat makes in foot-fall, the beard of a woman, the 
roots of a rock, the sinews of a bear, the breath of a fish, 
and the spittle of a bird. And though thou understand not 
these matters already, yet now thou mayest speedily find 


certain proof herein, that no lie is told thee: thou must 
have seen that a woman has no beard, and no sound comes 
from the leap of a cat, and there are no roots under a rock; 
and by my troth, all that I have told thee is equally true, 
though there be some things which thou canst not put to 
the test." 

Then said Gangleri: "This certainly I can perceive to 
be true: these things which thou hast taken for proof, 
I can see; but how was the fetter fashioned?" Harr an- 
swered : '* That I am well able to tell thee. The fetter was 
soft and smooth as a silken ribbon, but as sure and strong 
as thou shalt now hear. Then, when the fetter was brought 
to the iEsir, they thanked the messenger well for his 
errand. Then the ^sir went out upon the lake called Ams- 
vartnir, to the island called Lyngvi, and summoning the 
Wolf with them, they showed him the silken ribbon and 
bade him burst it, saying that it was somewhat stouter 
than appeared from its thickness. And each passed it to the 
others, and tested it with the strength of their hands and it 
did not snap ; yet they said the Wolf could break it. Then 
the Wolf answered: * Touching this matter of the ribbon, 
it seems to me that I shall get no glory of it, though I snap 
asunder so slender a band; but if it be made with cun- 
ning and wiles, then, though it seem little, that band shall 
never come upon my feet.' Then the ^sir answered that 
he could easily snap apart a slight silken band, he who 
had before broken great fetters of iron, — 'but if thou shalt 
not be able to burst this band, then thou wilt not be able 
to frighten the gods ; and then we shall unloose thee.' The 
Wolf said: *If ye bind me so that I shall not get free 
again, then ye will act in such a way that it will be late 
ere I receive help from you ; I am unwilling that this band 



should be laid upon me. Yet rather than that ye should im- 
pugn my courage, let some one of you lay his hand in my 
mouth, for a pledge that this is done in good faith/ Each 
of the ^sir looked at his neighbor, and none was willing to 
part with his hand, until T^r stretched out his right hand 
and laid it in the Wolf's mouth. But when the Wolf lashed 
out, the fetter became hardened; and the more he struggled 
against it, the tighter the band was. Then all laughed ex- 
cept Tfr: he lost his hand. 

" When the ^sir saw that the Wolf was fully bound, 
they took the chain that was fast to the fetter, and which 
is called Gelgja, and passed it through a great rock — it 
is called GjoU — and fixed the rock deep down into the 
earth. Then they took a great stone and drove it yet deeper 
into the earth — it was called Thviti — and used the stone 
for a fastening-pin. The Wolf gaped terribly, and thrashed 
about and strove to bite them ; they thrust into his mouth 
a certain sword : the guards caught in his lower jaw, and 
the point in the upper; that is his gag. He howls hideously, 
and slaver runs out of his mouth: that is the river called 
Van ; there he lies till the Weird of the Gods." Then said 
Gangleri: "Marvellous ill children did Loki beget, but all 
these brethren are of great might. Yet why did not the 
iEsir kill the Wolf, seeing they had expectation of evil 
from him ? " Harr answered : " So greatly did the gods es- 
teem their holy place and sanctuary, that they would not 
stain it with the WolPs blood ; though (so say the prophe- 
cies) he shall be the slayer of Odin." 

XXXV. Then said Gangleri: "Which are the Asynjur?" 
Harr said : " Frigg is the foremost : she has that estate which 
is called Fensalir, and it is most glorious. The second is 


Saga : she dwells at S0kkvabekkr, and that is a great abode. 
The third is Fir: she is the best physician. The fourth is 
Gefjun: she is a virgin, and they that die maidens attend 
her. The fifth is FuUa: she also is a maid, and goes with 
loose tresses and a golden band about her head ; she bears 
the ashen coffer of Frigg, and has charge over her foot- 
gear, and knows her secret counsel. Freyja is most gently 
born (together with Frigg): she is wedded to the man 
named Odr. Their daughter is Hnoss : she is so fair, that 
those things which are fair and precious are called hnossir, 
Odr went away on long journeys, and Freyja weeps for 
him, and her tears are red gold. Freyja has many names, 
and this is the cause thereof: that she gave herself sundry 
names, when she went out among unknown peoples seek- 
ing Odr: she is called Mardoll and H6rn,Gefn, S/r. Freyja 
had the necklace Brisinga-men. She is also called Lady of 
the Vanir. The seventh is Sjofn: she is most diligent in 
turning the thoughts of men to love, both of women and 
of men ; and from her name love-longing is called sjafni. 
The eighth is Lofn : she is so gracious and kindly to those 
that call upon her, that she wins Allfather's or Frigg' s per- 
mission for the coming together of mankind in marriage, 
of women and of men, though it were forbidden before, or 
seem flatly denied; from her name such permission is called 
Meave,' and thus also she is much 'loved' of men. The 
ninth is Var: she barkens to the oaths and compacts made 
between men and women; wherefore such covenants are 
called 'vows.' She also takes vengeance on those who 
perjure themselves. The tenth is Vor: she is wise and of 
searching spirit, so that none can conceal anything from 
her; it is a saying, that a woman becomes 'ware' of that 
of which she is informed. The eleventh is Syn: she keeps 


the door in the hall, and locks it before those who should 
not go in ; she is also set at trials as a defence against such 
suits as she wishes to refute: thence is the expression, 
that syn ' is set forward, when a man denies. The twelfth 
is Hlin: she is established as keeper over those men whom 
Frigg desires to preserve from any danger; thence comes 
the saying, that he who escapes Means.' Snotra is thir- 
teenth: she is prudent and of gentle bearing; from her 
name a woman or a man who is moderate is called snotr,^ 
The fourteenth is Gna: her Frigg sends into divers lands on 
her errands; she has that horse which runs over sky and sea 
and is called Hoof-Tosser. Once when she was riding, cer- 
tain of the Vanir saw her course in the air; then one spake: 

What flieth there? What fareth there. 
Or glideth in the air? 

She made answer: 

I fly not, though I fare 

And in the air glide 
On Hoof-Tosser, him that Hamskerpir 

Gat with Gardrofa. 

From Gna's name that which soars high is said to gnafa,^ 
Sol and Bil are reckoned among the Asynjur, but their 
nature has been told before. 

XXXVI. "There are also those others whose office it is to 
serve in Valhall, to bear drink and mind the table-service 
and ale-flagons; thus are they named in Grimnismal: 

* Denial, refutation. * Wise, prudent. 

^ Project, be eminent, tower. 


Hrist and Mist I would have bear the horn to me, 

Skeggjold and SkoguU; 
Hildr and Thrudr, Hlokk and Herfjotur, 

G611 and Geirahod, 
Randgridr and Radgridr and Reginleif — 

These bear the Einherjar ale. 

These are called Valkyrs : them Odin sends to every bat- 
tle ; they determine men's fey ness and award victory. Gudr 
and Rota and the youngest Norn, she who is called Skuld, 
ride ever to take the slain and decide fights. Jdrd,the mother 
of Thor, and Rindr, Vali's mother, are reckoned among 
the Asynjur. 

XXXVII. "A certain man was called G/mir, and his wife 
Aurboda: she was of the stock of the Hill-Giants; their 
daughter was Gerdr, who was fairest of all women. It 
chanced one day that Freyr had gone to Hlidskjalf, and 
gazed over all the world; but when he looked over into 
the northern region, he saw on an estate a house great 
and fair. And toward this house went a woman; when 
she raised her hands and opened the door before her, 
brightness gleamed from her hands, both over sky and 
sea, and all the worlds were illumined of her. Thus his 
overweening pride, in having presumed to sit in that holy 
seat, was avenged upon him, that he went away full of 
sorrow. When he had come home, he spake not, he slept 
not, he drank not; no man dared speak to him. Then 
Njordr summoned to him Skirnir, Freyr's foot-page, and 
bade him go to Freyr and beg speech of him and ask 
for whose sake he was so bitter that he would not speak 
with men. But Skirnir said he would go, albeit unwill- 


ingly; and said that evil answers were to be expected of 

" But when he came to Freyr, straightway he asked why 
Freyr was so downcast, and spake not with men. Then 
Freyr answered and said that he had seen a fair woman; 
and for her sake he was so full of grief that he would not 
live long if he were not to obtain her. 'And now thou 
shalt go and woo her on my behalf and have her hither, 
whether her father will or no. I will reward thee well for 
it.' Then Skirnir answered thus: he would go on his er- 
rand, but Freyr should give him his own sword — which is 
so good that it fights of itself; — and Freyr did not refuse, 
but gave him the sword. Then Skirnir went forth and wooed 
the woman for him, and received her promise; and nine 
nights later she was to come to the place called Barrey, 
and then go to the bridal with Freyr. But when Skirnir 
told Freyr his answer, then he sang this lay : 

Long is one night, long is the second; 

How can I wait through three? 
Often a month to me seemed less 

Than this one night of waiting. , 

This was to blame for Freyr's being so weaponless, when 
he fought with Beli, and slew him with the horn of a hart." 
Then said Gangleri : " 'T is much to be wondered at, that 
such a great chief as Freyr is would give away his sword, 
not having another equally good. It was a great privation to 
him, when he fought with him called Beli; by my faith, he 
must have rued that gift." Then answered Harr: "There 
was small matter in that, when he and Beli met; Freyr 
could have killed him with his hand. It shall come to pass 


that Freyr will think a worse thing has come upon him, 
when he misses his sword on that day that the Sons of 
Muspell go a-harrying." 

XXXVIII. Then said Gangleri: "Thou sayest that all 
those men who have fallen in battle from the beginning of 
the world are now come to Odin in Valhall. What has he 
to give them for food ? I should think that a very great host 
must be there." Then Harr answered: "That which thou 
sayest is true: a very mighty multitude is there, but many 
more shall be, notwithstanding which it will seem all too 
small, in the time when the Wolf shall come. But never 
is so vast a multitude in Valhall that the flesh of that boar 
shall fail, which is called Saehrimnir; he is boiled every 
day and is whole at evening. But this question which thou 
askest now : I think it likelier that few may be so wise as 
to be able to report truthfully concerning it. His name 
who roasts is Andhrimnir, and the kettle is Eldhrimnir; so 
it is said here: 

Andhrimnir has in Eldhrimnir 

Saehrimnir sodden. 
Best of hams ; yet how few know 

With what food the champions are fed." 

Then said Gangleri: "Has Odin the same fare as the 
champions?" Harr answered: "That food which stands 
on his board he gives to two wolves which he has, called 
Geri' and Freki;* but no food does he needj wine is both 
food and drink to him; so it says here: 

' Ravener. ' Glutton, greedy. 


Geri and Frcki the war-mighty glutteth, 
The glorious God of Hosts; 

But on wine alone the weapon-glorious 
Odin aye liveth. 

The ravens sit on his shoulders and say into his ear all the 
tidings which they see or hear; they are called thus: Hu- 
ginn' and Muninn.^ He sends them at day-break to fly 
about all the world, and they come back at undern-meal ; 
thus he is acquainted with many tidings. Therefore men 
call him Raven-God, as is said : 

Huginn and Muninn hover each day 

The wide earth over; 
I fear for Huginn lest he fare not back, — 

Yet watch I more for Muninn." 

XXXIX. Then said Gangleri : " What have the champions 
to drink, that may suffice them as abundantly as the food? 
Or is water drunk there ? " Then said Harr : '^ Now thou 
askest strangely; as if AUfather would invite to him kings 
or earls or other men of might and would give them water 
to drink ! I know, by my faith ! that many a man comes to 
Valhall who would think he had bought his drink of water 
dearly, if there were not better cheer to be had there, he 
who before had suffered wounds and burning pain unto 
death. I can tell thee a different tale of this. The she-goat, 
she who is called Heidrun, stands up in Valhall and bites 
the needles from the limb of that tree which is very famous, 
and is called Laeradr; and from her udders mead runs so 
copiously, that she fills a tun every day. That tun is so great 

* Thought. * Memory. 


that all the champions become quite drunk from it." Then 
said Gangleri: "That is a wondrous proper goat for them ; 
it must be an exceeding good tree from which she eats." 
Then spake Harr: "Even more worthy of note is the hart 
Eikthyrni, which stands in Valhall and bites from the limbs 
of the tree ; and from his horns distils such abundant exu- 
dation that it comes down into Hvergelmir, and from thence 
fall those rivers called thus : Sid, Vid, S0kin, Eikin, Svol, 
Gunnthra, Fjorm, Fimbulthul, Gipul, Gopul, Gomul, 
Geirvimul. Those fall about the abodes of the iEsir; these 
also are recorded: Thyn, Vin, Tholl, H611, Grad, Gunn- 
thrain, Nyt, Not, Nonn, Hronn, Vina, Vegsvinn, Thjod- 


XL. Then said Gangleri: "These are marvellous tidings 
which thou now tellest. A wondrous great house Valhall 
must be; it must often be exceeding crowded before the 
doors." Then Harr answered : " Why dost thou not ask 
how many doors there are in the hall, or how great? If 
thou hearest that told, then thou wilt say that it is strange 
indeed if whosoever will may not go out and in; but it 
may be said truly that it is no more crowded to find place 
therein than to enter into it; here thou mayest read in 

Five hundred doors and forty more 

So I deem stand in Valhall; 
Eight hundred champions go out at each door 

When they fare to fight with the Wolf." 

XLI. Then said Gangleri: "A very mighty multitude of 
men is in Valhall, so that, by my faith, Odin is a very great 


chieftairij'since he commands so large an army. Now what 
is the sport of the champions, when they are not fighting? " 
Harr replied : " Every day, as soon as they are clothed, they 
straightway put on their armor and go out into the court 
and fight, and fell each other. That is their sport ; and when 
the time draws near to undern-meal, they ride home to Val- 
hall and sit down to drink, even as is said here: 

All the Einherjar in Odin's court 

Deal out blows every day; 
The slain they choose and ride from the strife, — 

Sit later in love together. 

But what thou hast said is true: Odin is of great might. 
Many examples are found in proof of this, as is here said 
in the words of the iEsir themselves : 

Ash Yggdrasill's trunk of trees is foremost. 

And Skidbladnir of ships ; 
Odin of iEsir, of all steeds Sleipnir, 
Bifrost of bridges, and Bragi of skalds ; 
Habrok of hawks, and of hounds Garmr." 

XLII. Then said Gangleri: "Who owns that horse Sleip- 
nir, or what is to be said of him?" Harr answered: "Thou^ 
hast no knowledge of Sleipnir's points, and thou knowest 
not the circumstances of his begetting; but it will seem 
to thee worth the telling. It was early in the first days of 
the gods' dwelling here, when the gods had established the 
Midgard and made Valhall; there came at that time a cer- 
tain wright and offered to build them a citadel in three sea- 
sons, so good that it should be staunch and proof against 
the Hill-Giants and the Rime-Giants, though they should 


come in over Midgard. But he demanded as wages that 
he should have possession of Freyja, and would fain have 
had the sun and the moon. Then the iSsir held parley and 
took counsel together; and a bargain was made with the 
wright, that he should have that which he demanded, if 
he should succeed in completing the citadel in one win- 
ter. On the first day of summer, if any part of the citadel 
were left unfinished, he should lose his reward ; and he was 
to receive help from no man in the work. When they told 
him these conditions, he asked that they would give him 
leave to have the help of his stallion, which was called Sva- 
dilfari; and Loki advised it, so that the Wright's petition 
was granted. He set to work the first day of winter to make 
the citadel, and by night he hauled stones with the stal- 
lion's aid ; and it seemed very marvellous to the iEsir what 
great rocks that horse drew, for the horse did more rough 
work by half than did the wright. But there were strong 
witnesses to their bargain, and many oaths, since it seemed 
unsafe to the giant to be among the iEsir without truce, 
if Thor should come home. But Thor had then gone away 
into the eastern region to fight trolls. 

" Now when the winter drew nigh unto its end,the build- 
ing of the citadel was far advanced; and it was so high and 
strong that it could not be taken. Wheii it lacked three 
days of summer, the work had almost reached the gate 
of the stronghold. Then the gods sat down in their judg- 
ment seats, and sought means of evasion, and asked one 
another who had advised giving Freyja into Jotunheim, or 
so destroying the air and the heaven as to take thence the 
sun and the moon and give them to the giants. The gods 
agreed that he must have counselled this who is wont to 
give evil advice, Loki Laufeyarson, and they declared 


him deserving of an ill death, if he could not hit upon a 
way of losing the wright his wages ; and they threatened 
Loki with violence. But when he became frightened, then 
he swore oaths, that he would so contrive that the wright 
should lose his wages, cost him what it might. 

"That same evening, when the wright drove out after 
stone with the stallion Svadilfari, a mare bounded forth 
from a certain wood and whinnied to him. The stallion, 
perceiving what manner of horse this was, straightway be- 
came frantic, and snapped the traces asunder, and leaped 
over to the mare, and she away to the wood, and the wright 
after, strivihg to seize the stallion. These horses ran all 
night, and the wright stopped there that night; and after- 
ward, at day, the work was not done as it had been before. 
When the wright saw that the work could not be brought 
to an end, he fell into giant's fury. Now that the iEsir 
saw surely that the hill-giant was come thither, they did 
not regard their oaths reverently, but called on Thor, who 
came as quickly. And straightway the hammer Mjollnir 
was raised aloft; he paid the wright's wage, and not with 
the sun and the moon. Nay, he even denied him dwelling 
in Jotunheim, and struck but the one first blow, so that 
his skull was burst into small crumbs, and sent him down 
below under Niflhel. But Loki had such dealings with Sva- 
dilfari, that somewhat later he gave birth to a foal, which 
was gray and had eight feet; and this horse is the best among 
gods and men. So is said in V'dluspa: 

Then all the Powers strode to the seats of judgment. 
The most holy gods council held together: 
Who had the air all with evil envenomed. 
Or to the Ettin-race Odr's maid given. 


Broken were oaths then, bond and swearing, 
Pledges all sacred which passed between them; 
Thor alone smote there, swollen with anger: 
He seldom sits still when such he hears of." 

XLIII. Then said Gangleri: "What is to be said of Skid- 
bladnir, that which is best of ships ? Is there no ship equally 
great?" Harr replied: "Skidbladnir is best of ships and 
made with most skill of craftsmanship ; but Naglfar is the 
largest ship ; Muspell has it. Certain dwarves, sons of Ivaldi, 
made Skidbladnir and gave the ship to Freyr. It is so great 
that all the i^sir may man it, with their weapons and ar- 
maments, and it has a favoring wind as soon as the sail is 
hoisted, whithersoever it is bound ; but when there is no 
occasion for going to sea in it, it is made of so many things 
and with so much cunning that then it may be folded to- 
gether like a napkin and kept in one's pouch." 

XLIV. Then spake Gangleri: "A good ship is Skidblad- 
nir, but very great magic must have been used upon it be- 
fore it got to be so fashioned. Has Thor never experienced 
such a thing, that he has found in his path somewhat so 
mighty or so powerful that it has overmatched him through 
strength of magic ?" Then said Harr : "Few men, I ween, 
are able to tell of this; yet many a thing has seemed to 
him hard to overcome. Though there may have been some- 
thing so powerful or strong- that Thor might not have 
succeeded in winning the victory, yet it is not necessary 
to speak of it; because there are many examples to prove, 
and because all are bound to believe, that Thor is mighti- 
est." Then said Gangleri: "It seems to me that I must 
have asked you touching this matter what no one is able 


to tell of. Then spake Jafnharr: "We have heard say con- 
cerning some matters which seem to us incredible, but 
here sits one near at hand who will know how to tell true 
tidings of this. Therefore thou must believe that he will not 
lie for the first time now, who never lied before." Gang- 
leri said : ^^ Here will I stand and listen, if any answer is 
forthcoming to this word ; but otherwise I pronounce you 
overcome, if ye cannot tell that which I ask you." 

Then spake Thridi: "Now it is evident that he is re- 
solved to know this matter, though it seem not to us a 
pleasant thing to teliyThis is the beginning of this tale: 
Oku-Thor drove forth with his he-goats and chariot, and 
with him that As called Loki ; they came at evening to a 
husbandman's, and there received a night's lodging. About 
evening, Thor took his he-goats and slaughtered them both; 
after that they were flayed and borne to the caldron. When 
the cooking was done, then Thor and his companion sat 
down to supper. Thor invited to meat with him the hus- 
bandman and his wife, and their children : the husband- 
man's son was called Thjalfi, and the daughter Roskva. 
Then Thor laid the goat-hides farther away from the fire, 
and said that the husbandman and his servants should cast 
the bones on the goat-hides. Thjalfi, the husbandman's 
son, was holding a thigh-bone of the goat, and split it with 
his knife and broke it for the marrow. 

"Thor tarried there overnight; and in the interval be- 
fore day he rose up and clothed himself, took the ham- 
mer Mjollnir, swung it up, and hallowed the goat-hides; 
straightway the he-goats rose up, and then one of them was 
lame in a hind leg. Thor discovered this, and declared that 
the husbandman or his household could not have dealt 
wisely with the bones of the goat : he knew that the thigh- 


bone was broken. There is no need to make a long story 
of it ; all may know how frightened the husbandman must 
have been when he saw how Thor let his brows sink down 
before his eyesj but when he looked at the eyes, then it 
seemed to him that he must fall down before their glances 
alone. Thor clenched his hands on the hammer-shaft so 
that the knuckles whitened; and the husbandman and all 
his household did what was to be expected: they cried out 
lustily, prayed for peace, offered in recompense all that 
they had. But when he saw their terror, then the fury de- 
parted from him, and he became appeased, and took of 
them in atonement their children, Thjalfi and Roskva, who 
then became his bond-servants; and they follow him ever 

XLV. "Thereupon he left his goats behind, and began 
his journey eastward toward Jotunheim and clear to the 
sea ; and then he went out over the sea, that deep one ; but 
when he came to land, he went up, and Loki and Thjalfi 
and Roskva with him. Then, when they had walked a little 
while, there stood before them a great forest; they walked 
all that day till dark. Thjalfi was swiftest-footed of all 
men ; he bore Thor's bag, but there was nothing good for 
food. As soon as it had become dark, they sought them- 
selves shelter for the night, and found before them a cer- 
tain hall, very great : there was a door in the end, of equal 
width with the hall, wherein they took up quarters for the 
night. But about midnight there came a great earthquake : 
the earth rocked under them exceedingly, and the house 
trembled. Then Thor rose up and called to his companions, 
and they explored farther, and found in the middle of the 
hall a side-chamber on the right hand, and they went in 


thither. Thor sat down in the doorway, but the others 
were farther in from him, and they were afraid ; but Thor 
gripped his hammer-shaft and thought to defend himself. 
Then they heard a great humming sound, and a crashing. 
" But when it drew near dawn, then Thor went out and 
saw a man lying a little way from him in the wood; and 
that man was not small; he slept and snored mightily. Then 
Thor thought he could perceive what kind of noise it was 
which they had heard during the night. He girded himself 
with his belt of strength, and his divine power waxed; 
and on the instant the man awoke and rose up swiftly; 
and then, it is said, the first time Thor's heart failed him, 
to strike him with the hammer. He asked him his name, 
and the man called himself Skrjfmir, — ^but I have no 
need,' he said, ^to ask thee for thy name; I know that 
thou art Asa-Thor. But what? Hast thou dragged away 
my glove ? ' Then Skr^mir stretched out his hand and took 
up the glove; and at once Thor saw that it was that which 
he had taken for a hall during the night ; and as for the side- 
chamber, it was the thumb of the glove. Skrymir asked 
whether Thor would have his company, and Thor assented 
to this. Then Skrymir took and unloosened his provision- 
wallet and made ready to eat his morning meal, and Thor 
and his fellows in another place. Skr/mir then proposed 
to them to lay their supply of food together, and Thor 
assented. Then Skr/mir bound all the food in one bag and' 
laid it on his own back; he went before during the day, 
and stepped with very great strides ; but late in the even- 
ing Skrymir found them night-quarters under a certain 
great oak. Then Skrymir said to Thor that he would lay 
him down to sleep, — 'and do ye take the provision-bag 
and make ready for your supper.' 


"Thereupon Skrymir slept and snored hard, and Thor 
took the provision-bag and set about to unloose it; but 
such things must be told as will seem incredible: he got no 
knot loosened and no thong-end stirred, so as to be looser 
than before. When he saw that this work might not avail, 
then he became angered, gripped the hammer Mjollnir in 
both ^hands, and strode with great strides to that place 
where Skr^mir lay, and smote him in the head. Skrfmir 
awoke, and asked whether a leaf had fallen upon his head ; 
or whether they had eaten and were ready for bed ? Thor 
replied that they were just then about to go to sleep; then 
they went under another oak. It must be told thee, that 
there was then no fearless sleeping. At midnight Thor 
heard how Skr^mir snored and slept fast, so that it thun- 
dered in the woods; then he stood up and went to him, 
shook his hammer eagerly and hard, and smote down upon 
the middle of his crown : he saw that the face of the ham- 
mer sank deep into his head. And at that moment Skr^mir 
awoke and said: 'What is it now? Did some acorn fall 
on my head? Or what is the news with thee, Thor?' But 
Thor went back speedily, and replied that he was then but 
new-wakened; said that it was then midnight, and there 
was yet time to sleep. 

"Thor meditated that if he could get to strike him a third 
blow, never should the giant see himself again ; he lay now 
and watched whether Skr^mir were sleeping soundly yet. 
A little before day, when he perceived that Skr^mir must 
have fallen asleep, he stood up at once and rushed over 
to him, brandished his hammer with all his strength, and 
smote upon that one of his temples which was turned up. 
But Skr^mir sat up and stroked his cheek, and said : 'Some 
birds must be sitting in the tree above me; I imagined, 


when I awoke, that some dirt from the twigs fell upon my 
head. Art thou awake, Thor ? It will be time to arise and 
clothe us ; but now ye have no long journey forward to the 
castle called tFtgardr. I have heard how ye have whispered 
among yourselves that I am no little man in stature ; but ye 
shall see taller men, if ye come into tFtgardr. Now I will 
give you wholesome advice: do not conduct yourselves 
boastfully , for the henchmen of tFtgarda-Loki will not well 
endure big words from such swaddling-babes. But if not 
so, then turn back, and I think it were better for you to 
do that ; but if ye will go forward, then turn to the east. As 
for me, I hold my way north to these hills, which ye may 
now see.' Skr^mir took the provision-bag and cast it on 
his back, and turned from them across the forest; and it 
is not recorded that the i£sir bade him god-speed. 

XL VI. "Thor turned forward on his way, and his fellows, 
and went onward till mid-day. Then they saw a castle 
standing in a certain plain, and set their necks down on 
their backs before they could see up over it. They went to 
the castle; and there was a grating in front of the castle- 
gate, and it was closed. Thor went up to the grating, and 
did not succeed in opening it; but when they struggled to 
make their way in, they crept between the bars and came 
in that way. They saw a great hall and went thither; the 
door was open; then they went in, and saw there many 
men on two benches, and most of them were big enough. 
Thereupon they came before the king tFtgarda-Loki and 
saluted him; but he looked at them in his own good time, 
and smiled scornfully over his teeth, and said: ^It is late 
to ask tidings of a long journey ; or is it otherwise than 
I think: that this toddler is Oku-Thor? Yet thou may- 


est be greater than thou appearest to me. What manner of 
accomplishments are those, which thou and thy fellows 
think to be ready for? No one shall be here with us who 
knows not some kind of craft or cunning surpassing most 

"Then spoke the one who came last, who was called 
Loki : ^ I know such a trick, which I am ready to try : that 
there is no one within here who shall eat his food more 
quickly than I.' Then tFtgarda-Loki answered :' That is a 
feat, if thou accomplish it ^ and this feat shall accordingly 
be put to the proof/ He called to the farther end of the 
bench, that he who was called Logi should come forth on 
the floor and try his prowess against Loki. Then a trough 
was taken and borne in upon the hall-floor and filled with 
flesh; Loki sat down at the one end and Logi at the other, 
and each ate as fast as he could, and they met in the 
middle of the trough. By that time Loki had eaten all the 
meat from the bones, but Logi likewise had eaten all the 
meat, and the bones with it, and the trough too; and now 
it seemed to all as if Loki had lost the game. 

"Then tFtgarda-Loki asked what yonder young man 
could play at; and Thjalfi answered that he would under- 
take to run a race with whomsoever tFtgarda-Loki would 
bring up. Then tFtgarda-Loki said that that was a good ac- 
complishment, and that there was great likelihood that he 
must be well endowed v^ith fleetness if he were to perform 
that feat; yet he would speedily see to it that the matter 
should be tested. Then tJtgarda-Loki arose and went out; 
and there was a good course to run on over the level plain. 
Then tFtgarda-Loki called to him a certain lad, who was 
named Hugi, and bade him run a match against Thjalfi. 
Then they held the first heat; and Hugi was so much 


ahead that he turned back to meet Thjalfi at the end of 
the course. Then said tJtgarda-Loki : ' Thou wilt need to 
lay thyself forward more, Thjalfi, if thou art to win the 
game ; but it is none the less true that never have any men 
come hither who seemed to me fleeter of foot than this/ 
Then they began another heat; and when Hugi had reached 
the course's end, and was turning back, there was still 
a long bolt-shot to Thjalfi. Then spake tJtgarda-Loki : 
'Thjalfi appears to me to run this course well, but I do not 
believe of him now that he will win the game. But it will 
be made manifest presently, when they run the third heat.' 
Then they began the heat; but when Hugi had come to 
the end of the course and turned back, Thjalfi had not yet 
reached mid-course. Then all said that that game had been 

'' Next, tFtgarda-Loki asked Thor what feats there were 
which he might desire to show before them: such great 
tales as men have made of his mighty works. Then Thor 
answered that he would most willingly undertake to con- 
tend with any in drinking. tJtgarda-Loki said that might 
well be; he went into the hall and called his serving-boy, 
and bade him bring the sconce-horn which the henchmen 
were wont to drink oflF. Straightway the serving-lad came 
forward with the horn and put it into Thor's hand. Then 
said tFtgarda-Loki : ' It is held that this horn is well drained 
if it is drunk oflFin one drink, but some drink it oflFin two; 
but no one is so poor a man at drinking that it fails to drain 
oflF in three.' Thor looked upon the horn, and it did not 
seem big to him; and yet it was somewhat long. Still he 
was very thirsty ; he took and drank, and swallowed enor- 
mously, and thought that he should not need to bend oftener 
to the horn. But when his breath failed, and he raised his 



head from jhc horn and looked to see how it had gone 
with the drinking, it seemed to him that there was very 
little space by which the drink was lower now in the horn 
than before. Then said Ctgarda-Loki : ^It is well drunk, 
and not too much; I should not have believed, if it had 
been told me, that Asa-Thor could not drink a greater 
draught. But I know that thou wilt wish to drink it oiFin 
- another draught.' Thor answered nothing; he set the horn 
1 i , to his mouth, thinking now that he should drink a greater 

drink, and struggled with the draught until his breath gave 
out; and yet he saw that the tip of the horn would not 
come up so much as he liked. When he took the horn 
from his mouth and looked into it, it seemed to him then 
as if it had decreased less than the former time; but now 
there was a clearly apparent lowering in the horn. Then 
said Ctgarda-Loki : ' How now, Thor? Thou wilt not shrink 
from one more drink than may be well for thee? If thou 
now drink the third draught from the horn, it seems to me 
as if this must be esteemed the greatest; but thou canst 
not be called so great a man here among us as the R%\x 
call thee, if thou give not a better account of thyself in the 
other games than it seems to me may come of this.' Then 
Thor became angry, set the horn to his mouth, and drank 
with all his might, and struggled with the drink as much 
as he could; and when he looked into the horn, at least 
some space had been made. Then he gave up the horn and 
would drink no more. 

'' Then said tFtgarda-Loki : ' Now it is evident that thy 
prowess is not so great as we thought it to be; but wilt 
thou try thy hand at more games ? It may readily be seen 
that thou gettest no advantage hereof.' Thor answered: 
'I will make trial of yet other games; but it would have 



seemed wonderful to me, when I was at home with the 
i£sir, if such drinks had been called so little. But what 
game will ye now offer me?' Then said Ctgarda-Loki : 
^ Young lads here are wont to do this (which is thought 
of small consequence): lift my cat up from the earth; but 
I should not have been able to speak of such a thing to 
Asa-Thor if I had not seen that thou hast far less in thee 
than I had thought.' Thereupon there leaped forth on the 
hall-floor a gray cat, and a very big one; and Thor went 
to it and took it with his hand down under the middle of the 
belly and lifted up. But the cat bent into an arch just as 
Thor stretched up his hands ; and when Thor reached up 
as high as he could at the very utmost, then the cat lifted 
up one foot, and Thor got this game no further advanced. 
Then said tJtgarda-Loki : 'This game went even as I had 
foreseen; the cat is very great, whereas Thor is low and 
little beside the huge men who are here with us.' 

"Then said Thor: * Little as ye call me, let any one 
come up now and wrestle with me; now I am angry.' Then 
Ctgarda-Loki answered, looking about him on the benches, 
and spake: 'I see no such man here within, who would 
not hold it a disgrace to wrestle with thee;' and yet he 
said: 'Let us see first; let the old woman my nurse be 
called hither, Elli, and let Thor wrestle with her if he will. 
She has thrown such men as have seemed to me no less 
strong than Thor.' Straightway there came into the hall 
an old woman, stricken in years. Then Ctgarda-Loki said 
that she should grapple with Asa-Thor. There is no need 
to make a long matter of it: that struggle went in such 
wise that the harder Thor strove in gripping, the faster 
she stood; then the old woman essayed a hold, and then 
Thor became totty on his feet, and their tuggings were 


very hard. Yet it was not long before Thor fell to his 
knee, on one foot. Then tJtgarda-Loki went up and bade 
them cease the wrestling, saying that Thor should not 
need to challenge more men of his body-guard to wrest- 
ling. By then it had passed toward night; tJtgarda-Loki 
showed Thor and his companions to a seat, and they tar- 
ried there the night long in good cheer. 

XL VII. " But at morning, as soon as it dawned, Thor and 
his companions arose, clothed themselves, and were ready 
to go away. Then came there Ctgarda-Loki and caused a 
table to be set for them ; there was no lack of good cheer, 
meat and drink. So soon as they had eaten, he went out 
from the castle with them; and at parting tJtgarda-Loki 
spoke to Thor and asked how he thought his journey had 
ended, or whether he had met any man mightier than him- 
self. Thor answered that he could no^ say that he had not 
got much shame in their dealings together. ' But yet I know 
that ye will call me a man of little might, and I am ill- 
content with that.' Then said tFtgardi-Loki : 'Now I will 
tell thee the truth, now that thou art come out of the castle; 
and if I live and am able to prevail, then thou shalt never 
again come into it. And this I know, by my troth! that 
thou shouldst never have come into it, if I had known 
before that thou haddest so much strength in thee, and 
that thou shouldst so nearly have had us in great peril. But 
I made ready against thee eye-illusions ; and I came upon 
you the first time in the wood, and when thou wouldst 
have unloosed the provision-bag, I had bound it with iron, 
and thou didst not find where to undo it. But next thou 
didst smite me three blows with the hammer; and the first 
was least, and was yet so great that it would have sufficed 


to slay me, if it had come upon me. Where thou sawest 
near my hall a saddle-backed mountain, cut at the top into 
three square dales, and one the deepest, those were the marks 
of thy hammer. I brought the saddle-back before the blow, 
but thou didst not see that. So it was also with the games, 
in which ye did contend against my henchmen : that was 
the first, which Loki did ; he was very hungry and ate zeal- 
ously, but he who was called Logi was '* wild-fire," and 
he burned the trough no less swiftly than the meat. But 
when Thjalfi ran the race with him called Hugi, that was 
my "thought," and it was not to be expected of Thjalfi 
that he should match swiftness with it. 

"'Moreover, when thou didst drink from the horn, and 
it seemed to thee to go slowly, then, by my faith, that was 
a wonder which I should not have believed possible: the 
other end of the horn was out in the sea, but thou didst not 
perceive it. But now, when thou comest to the sea, thou 
shalt be able to mark what a diminishing thou hast drunk in 
the sea: this is henceforth called "ebb-tides."' 

"And again he said: 'It seemed to me not less note- 
worthy when thou didst lift up the cat; and to tell thee truly, 
then all were afraid who saw how thou didst lift one foot 
clear of the earth. That cat was not as it appeared to thee: 
it was the Midgard Serpent, which lies about all the land, 
and scarcely does its length suffice to encompass the earth 
with head and tail. So high didst thou stretch up thine 
arms that it was then but a little way more to heaven. It was 
also a great marvel concerning the wrestling-match, when 
thou didst withstand so long, and didst not fall more than 
on one knee, wrestling with Elli; since none such has ever 
been and none shall be, if he become so old as to abide 
" Old Age," that she shall not cause him to fall. And now 


it is truth to tell that we must part; and it will be better on 
both sides that ye never come again to seek me. Another 
time I will defend my castle with similar wiles or with 
others, so that ye shall get no power over me.' 

^^ When Thor had heard these sayings, he clutched his 
hammer and brandished it aloft; but when he was about 
to launch it forward, then he saw tJtgarda-Loki nowhere. 
Then he turned back to the castle, purposing to crush it 
to pieces ; and he saw there a wide and fair plain, but no 
castle. So he turned back and went his way, till he was 
come back again to Thrudvangar. But it is a true tale that 
then he resolved to seek if he might bring about a meet- 
ing between himself and the Midgard Serpent, which after- 
ward came to pass. Now I think no one knows how to tell 
thee more truly concerning this journey of Thor's." 

XLVIII. Then said Gangleri : '* Very mighty is tFtgarda- 
Loki, and he deals much in wiles and in magic ; and his 
might may be seen in that he had such henchmen as have 
great prowess. Now did Thor ever take vengeance for 
this?" Harr answered: "It is not unknown, though one 
be not a scholar, that Thor took redress for this journey 
of which the tale has but now been told; and he did not 
tarry at home long before he made ready for his journey 
so hastily that he had with him no chariot and no he-goats 
and no retinue. He went out over Midgard in the guise of 
a young lad, and came one evening at twilight to a cer- 
tain giant's, who was called Hymir. Thor abode as guest 
there overnight; but at dawn Hymir arose and clothed him- 
self and made ready to row to sea a-fishing. Then Thor 
sprang up and was speedily ready, and asked Hymir to let 
him row to sea with him. But Hymir said that Thor would 


be of little help to him, being so small and a youth, * And 
thou wilt freeze, if I stay so long and so far out as I am 
wont/ But Thor said that he would be able to row far out 
from land, for the reason that it was not certain whether 
he would be the first to ask to row back. Thor became so 
enraged at the giant that he was forthwith ready to let his 
hammer crash against him; but he forced himself to for- 
bear, smce he purposed to try his strength in another quar- 
ter. He asked Hymir what they should have for bait, but 
Hymir bade him get bait for himself. Then Thor turned 
away thither where he saw a certain herd of oxen, which 
Hymir owned; he took the largest ox, called Himinbrjotr,* 
and cut ofF its head and went therewith to the sea. By that 
time Hymir had shoved out the boat. 

"Thor went aboard the skifFand sat down in the stern- 
seat, took two oars and rowed; and it seemed to Hymir 
that swift progress came of his rowing. Hymir rowed for- 
ward in the bow, and the rowing proceeded rapidly; then 
Hymir said that they had arrived at those fishing-banks 
where he was wont to anchor and angle for flat-fish. But 
Thor said that he desired to row much farther, and they 
took a sharp pull; then Hymir said that they had come 
so far that it was perilous to abide out farther because of 
the Midgard Serpent. Thor replied that they would row a 
while yet, and so he did ; but Hymir was then sore afraid. 
Now as soon as Thor had laid by the oars, he made ready 
a very strong fishing-line, and the hook was no less large 
and strong. Then Thor put the ox-head on the hook and 
cast it overboard, and the hook went to the bottom ; and it 
is telling thee the truth to say that then Thor beguiled the 
Midgard Serpent no less than tFtgarda-Loki had mocked 

* Heaven-bellowing ? 


Thor, at the time when he lifted up the Serpent in his 

^^The Midgard Serpent snapped at the ox-head, and the 
hook caught in its jaw; but when the Serpent was aware 
of this, it dashed away so fiercely that both Thor's fists 
crashed against the gunwale. Then Thor was angered, 
and took upon him his divine strength, braced his feet so 
strongly that he plunged through the ship with both feet, 
and dashed his feet against the bottom ; then he drew the 
Serpent up to the gunwale. And it may be said that no one 
has seen very fearful sights who might not see that : how 
Thor flashed fiery glances at the Serpent, and the Serpent 
in turn stared up toward him from below and blew venom. 
Then, it is said, the giant Hymir grew pale, became yel- 
low, and was sore afraid, when he saw the Serpent, and 
how the sea rushed out and in through the boat. In the 
very moment when Thor clutched his hammer and raised 
it on high, then the giant fumbled for his fish-knife and 
hacked off Thor's line at the gunwale, and the Serpent 
sank down into the sea. Thor hurled his hammer after it; 
and men say that he struck off its head against the bottom ; 
but I think it were true to tell thee that the Midgard Ser- 
pent yet lives and lies in the encompassing sea. But Thor 
swung hiis fist and brought it against Hymir's ear, so that 
he plunged overboard, and Thor saw the soles of his feet. 
And Thor waded to land." 

XLIX. Then spake Gangleri : '* Have any more matters 
of note befallen among the iEsir? A very great deed of 
valor did Thor achieve on that journey." Harr made an- 
swer: ''Now shall be told of those tidings which seemed 
of more consequence to the iEsir. The beginning of the 


story is this, that Baldr the Good dreamed great and peril- 
ous dreams touching his life. When he told these dreams 
to the JEsiTj then they took counsel together: and this 
was their decision : to ask safety for Baldr from all kinds 
of dangers. And Frigg took oaths to this purport, that 
fire and water should spare Baldr, likewise iron and metal 
of all kinds, stones, earth, trees, sicknesses, beasts, birds, 
venom, serpents. And when that was done and made 
known, then it was a diversion of Baldr's and the i£sir, 
that he should stand up in the Thing,' and all the others 
should some shoot at him, some hew at him, some beat 
him with stones; but whatsoever was done hurt him not 
at all, and that seemed to them all a very worshipful thing. 

" But when Loki Laufeyarson saw this, it pleased him 
ill that Baldr took no hurt. He went to Fensalir to Frigg, 
and made himself into the likeness of a woman. Then 
Frigg asked if that woman knew what the Ms'ir did at the 
Thing. She said that all were shooting at Baldr, and more- 
over, that he took no hurt. Then said Frigg: 'Neither 
weapons nor trees may hurt Baldr: I have taken oaths of 
them all.' Then the woman asked : ' Have all things taken 
oaths to spare Baldr?' and Frigg answered: 'There grows 
a tree-sprout alone westward of Valhall: it is called Mis- 
tletoe; I thought it too young to ask the oath of.' Then 
straightway the woman turned away; but Loki took Mis- 
tletoe and pulled it up and went to the Thing. 

" Hodr stood outside the ring of men, because he was 
blind. Then spake Loki to him : 'Why dost thou not shoot 
at Baldr?' He answered: 'Because I see not where Baldr 

' The Thing was the legislative assembly of Iceland ; less specifically^ a formal 
assembly held for judicial purposes or to settle questions of moment ; an as- 
sembly of men. 


is; and for this also, that I am weaponless.' Then said 
Loki : ^ Do thou also after the manner of other men, and 
show Baldr honor as the other men do. I will direct thee 
where he staiids ; shoot at him with this wand.' Hodr took 
Mistletoe and shot at Baldr, being guided by Loki: the 
shaft flew through Baldr, and he fell dead to the earth; and 
that was the greatest mischance that has ever befallen 
among gods and men. 

"Then,when Baldr was fallen,words failed all the^Esir, 
and their hands likewise to lay hold of him; each looked 
at the other, and all were of one mind as to him who had 
wrought the work, but none might take vengeance, so great 
a sanctuary was in that place. But when the i£sir tried to 
speak, then it befell first that weeping broke out, so that 
none might speak to the others with words concerning his 
grief. But Odin bore that misfortune by so much the worst, 
as he had most perception of how great harm and loss for 
the iEsir were in the death of Baldr. 

''Now when the gods had come to themselves, Frigg 
spake, and asked who there might be among the iEsir who 
would fain have for his own all her love and favor: let him 
ride the road to Hel, and seek if he may find Baldr,and oflFer 
Hel a ransom if she will let Baldr come home to Asgard. 
And heisnamedHermodr the Bold, Odin's son, who under- 
took that embassy. Then Sleipnir was taken, Odin's steed, 
and led forward ; and Hermodr mounted on that horse and 
galloped oflF. 

" The iEsir took the body of Baldr and brought it to the 
sea. Hringhorni is the name of Baldr's ship : it was great- 
est of all ships; the gods would have launched it and made 
Baldr's pyre thereon, but the ship stirred not forward. 
Then word was sent to Jotunheim after that giantess who 


is called Hyrrokkin. When she had come, riding a wolf 
and having a viper for bridle, then she leaped oiFthe steed; 
and Odin called to four berserks to tend the steed; but 
they were not able to hold it until they had felled it. Then 
Hyrrokkin went to the prow of the boat and thrust it out 
at the first push, so that fire burst from the rollers, and all 
lands trembled. Thor became angry and clutched his ham- 
mer, and would straightway have broken her head, had not 
the gods prayed for peace for her. 

"Then was the body of Baldr borne out on shipboard; 
and when his wife, Nanna the daughter of Nep, saw that, 
straightway her heart burst with grief, and she died ; she 
was borne to the pyre, and fire was kindled. Then Thor 
stood by and hallowed the pyre with MjoUnir; and before 
his feet ran a certain dwarf which was named Litr; Thor 
kicked at him with his foot and thrust him into the fire, 
and he burned. People of many races visited this burn- 
ing: First is to be told of Odin, how Frigg and the Val- 
kyrs went with him, and his ravens ; but Freyr drove in 
his chariot with the boar called Gold-Mane, or Fearful- 
Tusk, and Heimdallr rode the horse called Gold-Tpp, and 
Freyja drove her cats. Thither came also much people of 
the Rime-Giants and the Hill-Giants. Odin laid on the 
pyre that gold ring which is called Draupnir; this quality 
attended it, that every ninth night there dropped from it 
eight gold rings of equal weight. Baldr's horse was led to 
the bale-fire with all his trappings. 

''Now this is to be told concerning Hermodr, that he 
rode nine nights through dark dales and deep, so that he 
saw not before he was come to the river GjoU and rode 
onto the GjoU- Bridge; which bridge is thatched with glit- 
tering gold. Modgudr is the maiden called who guards the 


bridge; she asked him his name and race, saying that the 
day before there had ridden over the bridge five companies 
of dead men; ^but the bridge thunders no less under thee 
alone, and thou hast not the color of dead men. Why 
ridest thou hither on Hel-way ? ' He answered : ^ I am ap- 
pointed to ride to Hel to seek out Baldr. Hast thou per- 
chance seen Baldr on Hel-way ? ' She said that Baldr had 
ridden there over GjoU's Bridge, — 'but down and north 
lieth Hel-way.' 

"Then Hermodr rode on till he came to Hel-gate; 
he dismounted from his steed and made his girths fast, 
mounted and pricked him with his spurs; and the steed 
leaped so hard over the gate that he came nowise near to 
it. Then Hermodr rode home to the hall and dismounted 
from his steed, went into the hall, and saw sitting there 
in the high-seat Baldr, his brother; and Hermodr tarried 
there overnight. At morn Hermodr prayed Hel that Baldr 
might ride home with him, and told her how great weep- 
ing was among the iEsir. But Hel said that in this wise 
it should be put to the test, whether Baldr were so all-be- 
loved as had been said: 'If all things in the world, quick 
and dead, weep for him, then he shall go back to the iEsir; 
but he shall remain with Hel if any gainsay it or will not 
weep.' Then Hermodr arose; but Baldr led him out of 
the hall, and took the ring Draupnir and sent it to Odin 
for a remembrance. And Nanna sent Frigg a linen smock, 
and yet more gifts, and to Fulla a golden finger-ring. 

"Then Hermodr rode his way back, and came into 
Asgard, and told all those tidings which he had seen and 
heard. Thereupon the iEsir sent over all the world mes- 
sengers to pray that Baldr be wept out of Hel; and all 
men did this, and quick things, and the earth, and stones. 


and trees, and all metals, — even as thou must have seen 
that these things weep when they come out of frost and 
into the heat. Then, when the messengers went home, 
having well wrought their errand, they found, in a cer- 
tain cave, where a giantess sat : she called herself Thokk. 
They prayed her to weep Baldr out of Hel ; she answered : 

Thokk will weep waterless tears 

For Baldr's bale- fare; 
Living or dead, I loved not the churl's son; 

Let Hel hold to that she hath ! 

And men deem that she who was there was Loki Laufey- 
arson, who hath wrought most ill among the JEs'ir.'* 

L. Then said Gangleri: ^^ Exceeding much Loki had 
brought to pass, when he had first been cause that Baldr 
was slain, and then that he was not redeemed out of Hel. 
Was any vengeance taken on him for this ? " Harr an- 
swered: "This thing was repaid him in such wise that he 
shall remember it long. When the gods had become as 
wroth with him as was to be looked for, he ran off and 
hid himself in a certain mountain ; there he made a house 
with four doors, so that he could see out of the house in 
all directions. Often throughout the day he turned him- 
self into the likeness of a salmon and hid himself in the 
place called Franangr-Falls ; then he would ponder what 
manner of wile the gods would devise to take him in^the 
water-fall. But when he sat in the house, he took twine 
of linen and knitted meshes as a net is made since; but a 
fire burned before him. Then he saw that the iEsir were 
close upon him; and Odin had seen from Hlidskjalf where 


he was. He leaped up at once and out into the river, but 
cast the net into the fire. 

"When theiEsir had come to the house, he went in first 
who was wisest of all, who is called Kvasir; and when he 
saw in the fire the white ash where the net had burned, 
then he perceived that that thing must be a device for 
catching fish, and told it to the iEsir. Straightway they 
took hold, and made themselves a net after the pattern of 
the one which they perceived, by the burnt-out ashes, that 
Loki had made. When the net was ready, then the ^sir 
went to the river and cast the net into the fall; Thor 
held one end of the net, and all of the iEsir held the other, 
and they drew the net. But Loki darted ahead and lay 
down between two stones; they drew the net over him, 
and perceived that something living was in front of it. 
A second time they went up to the fall and cast out the 
net, having bound it to something so heavy that nothing 
should be able to pass. under it. Then Loki swam ahead 
of the net; but when he saw that it was but a short dis- 
tance to the sea, then he jumped up over the net-rope and 
ran into the fall. Now the ^sir saw where he went, and 
went up again to the fall and divided the company into 
two parts, but Thor waded along in mid-stream; and so 
they went out toward the sea. Now Loki saw a choice 
of two courses : it was a mortal peril to dash out into the 
sea; but this was the second — to leap over the net again. 
And so he did : he leaped as swiftly as he could over the 
net-cord. Thor clutched at him and got hold of him, and 
he slipped in Thor's hand, so that the hand stopped at 
the tail; and for this reason the salmon has a tapering 

" Now Loki was taken truceless, and was brought with 


them into a certain cave. Thereupon they took three flat 
stones, and set them on edge and drilled a hole in each 
stone. Then were taken Loki's sons, Vali and Nari or 
Narfi ; the iEsir changed Vali into the form of a wolf, and 
he tore asunder Narfi his brother. And the iEsir took his 
entrails and bound Loki with them over the three stones : 
one stands under his shoulders, the second under his loins, 
the third under his houghs; and those bonds were turned to 
iron. Then Skadi took a venomous serpent and fastened 
it up over him, so that the venom should drip from the 
serpent into his face. But Sigyn, his wife, stands near him 
and holds a basin under the venom-drops; and when the 
basin is full, she goes and pours out the venom, but in the 
meantime the venom drips into his face. Then he writhes 
against it with such force that all the earth trembles: 
ye call that 'earthquakes.' There he lies in bonds till the 
Weird of the Gods." 

LI. Then said Gangleri: "What tidings are to be told 
concerning the Weird of the Gods? Never before have I 
heard aught said of this." Harr answered : " Great tidings 
are to be told of it, and much. The first is this, that there 
shall come that winter which is called the Awful Winter: 
in that time snow shall drive from all quarters; frosts shall 
be great then, and winds sharp; there shall be no virtue in 
the sun. Those winters shall proceed three in succession, 
and no summer between ; but first shall come three other 
winters, such that over all the world there shall be mighty 
battles. In that time brothers shall slay each other for greed's 
sake, and none shall spare father or son in manslaughter 
and in incest; so it says in Vbluspd: 


Brothers shall strive and slaughter each other; 

Own sisters' children shall sin together; 

111 days among men, many a whoredom: 

An axe-age, a sword-age, shields shall be cloven ; 

A wind-age, a wolf-age, ere the world totters. 

Then shall happen what seems great tidings: the Wolf 
shall swallow the sun; and this shall seem to men a great 
harm. Then the other wolf shall seize the moon, and he 
also shall work great ruin ; the stars shall vanish from the 
heavens. Then shall come to pass these tidings also: all 
the earth shall tremble so, and the crags, that trees shall 
be torn up from the earth, and the crags fall to ruin ; and 
all fetters and bonds shall be broken and rent. Then shall 
Fenris-Wolf get loose; then the sea shall gush forth upon 
the land, because the Midgard Serpent stirs in giant wrath 
and advances up onto the land. Then that too shall hap- 
pen, that Naglfar shall be loosened, the ship which is so 
named. (It is made of dead men's nails ; wherefore a warn- 
ing is desirable, that if a man die with unshorn nails, that 
man adds much material to the ship Naglfar, which gods 
and men were fain to have finished late.) Yet in this sea- 
flood Naglfar shall float. Hrymr is the name of the giant 
who steers Naglfar. Fenris-Wolf shall advance with gap- 
ing mouth, and his lower jaw shall be against the earth, 
but the upper against heaven, — he would gape yet more 
if there were room for it ; fires blaze from his eyes and nos- 
trils. The Midgard Serpent shall blow venom so that he 
shall sprinkle all the air and water; and he is very terri- 
ble, and shall be on one side of the Wolf. In this din shall 
the heaven be cloven, and the Sons of Muspell ride thence : 
Surtr shall ride first, and both before him and after him 


burning fire; his sword is exceeding good: from it radiance 
shines brighter than from the sun ; when they ride over Bi- 
frost, then the bridge shall break, as has been told before. 
The Sons of Muspell shall go forth to that field which is 
called Vigridr; thither shall come Feiiris- Wolf also and the 
Midgard Serpent; then Loki and Hrymr shall come there 
also, and with him all the Rime-Giants. All the cham- 
pions of Hel follow Loki; and the Sons of Muspell shall 
have a company by themselves, and it shall be very bright. 
The field Vigridr is a hundred leagues wide each way. 

"When these tidings come to pass, then shall Heim- 
dallr rise up and blow mightily in the Gjallar-Horn, and 
awaken all the gods ; and they shall hold council together. 
Then Odin shall ride to Mimir's Well and take counsel 
of Mimir for himself and his host. Then the Ash of Ygg- 
drasill shall tremble, and nothing then shall be without fear 
in heaven or in earth. Then shall the iEsir put on their 
war-weeds, and all the Champions, and advance to the 
field : Odin rides first with the gold helmet and a fair birnie, 
and his spear, which is called Gungnir. He shall go forth 
against Fenris-Wolf, and Thor stands forward on his other 
side, and can be of no avail to him, because he shall have 
his hands full to fight against the Midgard Serpent. Freyr 
shall contend with Surtr, and a hard encounter shall there 
be between them before Freyr falls: it is to be his death 
that he lacks that good sword of his, which he gave to 
Skirnir. Then shall the dog Garmr be loosed, which is 
bound before Gnipa's Cave: he is the greatest monster; 
he shall do battle with Tyr, and each become the other's 
slayer. Thor shall put to death the Midgard Serpent, and 
shall stride away nine paces from that spot; then shall he 
fall dead to the earth, because of the venom which the 


Snake has blown at him. The Wolf shall swallow Odin; 
that shall be his ending But straight thereafter shall Vidarr 
stride forth and set one foot upon the lower jaw of the 
Wolf: on that foot he has the shoe, materials for which 
have been gathering throughout all time. (They are the 
scraps of leather which men cut out of their shoes at toe 
or heel; therefore he who desires in his heart to come to 
the iEsir's help should cast those scraps away.) With one 
hand he shall seize the WolPs upper jaw and tear his gullet 
asunder; and that is the death of the Wolf. Loki shall have 
battle with Heimdallr, and each be the slayer of the other. 
Then straightway shall Surtr cast fire over the earth and 
burn all the world; so is said in Voluspa: 

High blows Heimdallr, the horn is aloft; 
Odin communes with Mimir's head; 
Trembles Yggdrasill's towering Ash-, 
The old tree wails when the Ettin is loosed. 

What of the iEsir? What of the Elf-folk? 
All Jotunheim echoes, the iEsir are at council; 
The dwarves are groaning before their stone doors. 
Wise in rock- walls; wit ye yet, or what? 

Hrymr sails from the east, the sea floods onward; 
The monstrous Beast twists in mighty wrath; 
The Snake beats the waves, the Eagle is screaming; 
The gold-neb tears corpses, Naglfar is loosed* 

From the east sails the keel ; come now Muspell's folk 
Over the sea-waves, and Loki steereth; 
There are the warlocks all with the Wolf, — 
With them is the brother of Byleistr faring. 


Surtr fares from southward with switch-eating flame; 
On his sword shimmers the sun of the war-gods ; 
The rocks are falling, and fiends are reeling, 
Heroes tread Hel-way, heaven is cloven. 

Then to the Goddess a second grief cometh. 
When Odin fares to fight with the Wolf, 
And Beli's slayer, the bright god, with Surtr; 
There must fall Frigg's beloved. 

Odin's son goeth to strife with the Wolf, — 
Vidarr, speeding to meet the slaughter-beast; 
The sword in his hand to the heart he thrusteth 
Of the fiend's offspring; avenged is his Father. 

Now goeth Hlodyn's glorious son 
Not in flight from the Serpent, of fear unheeding; 
All the earth's oflFspring must empty the homesteads. 
When furiously smiteth Midgard's defender. 

The sun shall be darkened, earth sinks in the sea, — 
Glide from the heaven the glittering stars; 
Smoke-reek rages and reddening fire: 
The high heat licks against heaven itself. 

And here it says yet so: 

Vigridr hight the field where in fight shall meet 

Surtr and the cherished gods; 
An hundred leagues it has on each side: 

Unto them that field is fated." 

LII. Then said Gangleri: "What shall come to pass 


afterward, when all the world is burned, and dead are all 
the gods and all the champions and all mankind? Have 
ye not said before, that every man shall live in some world 
throughout all ages?" Then Thridi answered: "In that 
time the good abodes shall be many, and many the ill; 
then it shall be best to be in Gimle in Heaven. Moreover, 
there is plenteous abundance of good drink, for them that 
esteem that a pleasure, in the hall which is called Brimir: 
it stands in Okolnir. That too is a good hall which stands 
in Nida Fells, made of red gold ; its name is Sindri. In these 
halls shall dwell good men and pure in heart. 

"On Nastrand' is a great hall and evil,and its doors face 
to the north : it is all woven of serpent-backs like a wattle- 
house; and all the snake-heads turn into the house and blow 
venom, so that along the hall run rivers of venom; and they 
who have broken oaths, and murderers, wade those rivers, 
even as it says here: 

I know a hall standing far from the sun. 
In Nastrand: the doors to northward are turned; 
Venom-drops fall down from the roof-holes; 
That hall is bordered with backs of serpents. 

There are doomed to wade the weltering streams 
Men that are mansworn, and they that murderers are. 

But it is worst in Hvergelmir: 

There the cursed snake tears dead men's corpses." 

LIII. Then spake Gangleri: "Shall any of the gods live 

« Strand of the Dead. 


then, or shall there be then any earth or heaven?" Harr 
answered : ^^ In that time the earth shall emerge out of the 
sea, and shall then be green and fair; then shall the fruits 
of it be brought forth unsown. Vidarr and Vali shall be 
living, inasmuch as neither sea nor the fire of Surtr shall 
have harmed them; and they shall dwell at Ida-Plain, where 
Asgard was before. And then the sons of Thor, Modi and 
Magni,shall come there,and they shall have Mjollnir there. 
After that Baldr shall come thither, and Hodr, from Hel; 
then all shall sit down together and hold speech with one 
another, and call to mind their secret wisdom, and speak 
of those happenings which have been before: of the Mid- 
gard Serpent and of Fenris-Wolf. Then they shall find 
in the grass those golden chess-pieces which the iSsir had 
had; thus is it said: 

In the deities' shrines shall dwell Vidarr and Vali, 
When the Fire of Surtr is slackened ; 

Modi and Magni shall have Mjollnir 
At the ceasing of Thor's strife. 

In the place called Hoddmimir's Holt there shall lie hidden 
during the Fire of Surtr two of mankind, who are called 
thus : Lif and Lifthrasir, and for food they shall have the 
morning-dews. From these folk shall come so numerous 
an offspring that all the world shall be peopled, even as is 
said here: 

Lif and Lifthrasir, these shall lurk hidden 

In the Holt of Hoddmimir; 
The morning dews their meat shall be; 

Thence are gendered the generations. 


And it may seem wonderful to thee, that the sun shall have 
borne a daughter not less fair than herself; and the daughter 
shall then tread in the steps of her mother, as is said here : 

The Elfin-beam shall bear a daughter, 
Ere Fenris drags her forth; 

That maid shall go, when the great gods die. 
To ride her mother's road. 

But now, if thou art able to ask yet further, then indeed 
I know not whence answer shall come to thee, for I never 
heard any man tell forth at greater length the course of 
the world; and now avail thyself of that which thou hast 

LIV. Thereupon Gangleri heard great noises on every side 
of him ; and then, when he had looked about him more, 
lo, he stood out of doors on a level plain, and saw no hall 
there and no castle. Then he went his way forth and came 
home into his kingdom, and told those tidings which he had 
seen and heard; and after him each man told these tales 
to the other. 

[^Here IVilken closes his edition; 'Jons son admits the following: 

But the iEsir sat them down to speak together, and took 
counsel and recalled all these tales which had been told 
to him. And they gave these same names that were named 
before to those men and places that were there, to the 
end that when long ages should have passed away, men 
should not doubt thereof, that those iEsir that were but 
now spoken of, and these to whom the same names were 
then given, were all one. There Thor was so named, and 
he is the old Asa-Thor. 

All reject what follows : 

He is Oku-Thor, and to him are ascribed those mighty 
works which Hector wrought in Troy. But this is the 
belief of men : that the Turks told of Ulysses, and called 
him Loki, for the Turks were his greatest foes.] 



L A certain man was named i£gir, or Hler. He dwelt on 
the island which is now called Hler's Isle,' and was deeply 
versed in black magic. He took his way to Asgard,but the 
^sir had foreknowledge of his journey ; he was received 
with good cheer, and yet many things were done by de- 
ceit, with eye-illusions. And at evening, when it was time 
for drinking, Odin had swords brought into the hall, so 
bright that light radiated from them : and other illumina- 
tion was not used while they sat at drinking. Then the 
^sir came in to their banquet, and in the high-seats sat 
them down those twelve iEsir who were appointed to be 
judges i these were their names: Thor, Njordr, Freyr, 
Tyr, Heimdallr, Bragi, Vidarr, Vali, UUr, Hoenir, Forseti, 
Loki; and in like manner the Asynjur: Frigg, Freyja, 
Gefjun, Idunn, Gerdr,Sigyn, Fulla, Nanna. It seemed glo- 
rious to Mgir to look about him in the hall: the wain- 
scottings there were all hung with fair shields; there was 
also stinging mead,copiously quaffed. The man seated next 
to -Sgir was Bragi, and they took part together in drink- 
ing and in converse: Bragi told ^gir of many things which 
had come to pass among the i¥)sir. 

He began the story at the point where three of the 
^sir, Odin and Loki and Hoenir, departed from home 
and were wandering over mountains and wastes, and food 
was hard to find. But when they came down into a cer- 
tain dale, they saw a herd of oxen, took one ox, and set 
about cooking it. Now when they thought that it must be 
cooked, they broke up the fire, and it was not cooked. 
After a while had passed, they having scattered the fire a 

> Usually translated ** Poetical Diction." * Now Laess^. 


second time, and it was not cooked, they took counsel to- 
gether, asking each other what it might mean. Then they 
heard a voice speaking in the oak up above them, declar- 
ing that he who sat there confessed he had caused the lack 
of virtue in the fire. They looked thither, and there sat an 
eagle; and it was no small one. Then the eagle said: ^^If 
ye are willing to give me my fill of the ox, then it will 
cook in the fire." They assented to this. Then he let him- 
self float down from the tree and alighted by the fire, and 
forthwith at the very first took unto himself the two hams 
of the ox, and both shoulders. Then Loki was angered, 
snatched up a great pole, brandished it with all his strength, 
and drove it at the eagle's body. The eagle plunged vio- 
lently at the blow and flew up, so that the pole was fast 
to the eagle's back, and Loki's hands to the other end of 
the pole. The eagle flew at such a height that Loki's feet 
down below knocked against stones and rock-heaps and 
trees, and he thought his arms would be torn from his 
shoulders. He cried aloud, entreating the eagle urgently 
for peace; but the eagle declared that Loki should never 
be loosed, unless he would give him his oath to induce 
Idunn to come out of Asgard with her apples. Loki as- 
sented, and being straightway loosed, went to his com- 
panions; nor for that time are any more things reported 
concerning their journey, until they had come home. 

But at the appointed time Loki lured Idunn out of As- 
gard into a certain wood, saying that he had found such 
apples as would seem to her of great virtue, and prayed 
that she would have her apples with her and compare them 
with these. Then Thjazi the giant came there in his eagle's 
plumage and took Idunn and flew away with her, oflF into 
Thrymheimr to his abode. 


But the ^sir became straitened at the disappearance of 
Idunn,and speedily they became hoary and old. Then those 
^sir took counsel together, and each asked the other what 
had last been known of Idunn ; and the last that had been 
seen was that she had gone out of Asgard with Loki. There- 
upon Loki was seized and brought to the Thing, and was 
threatened with death, or tortures; when he had become 
well frightened, he declared that he would seek after Idunn 
in Jotunheim, if Freyja would lend him the hawk's plum- 
age which she possessed. And when he got the hawk's 
plumage, he flew north into Jotunheim, and came on a cer- 
tain day to the home of Thjazi the giant. Thjazi had rowed 
out to sea, but Idunn was at home alone : Loki turned her 
into the shape of a nut and grasped her in his claws and 
flew his utmost. 

Now when Thjazi came home and missed Idunn, he 
took his eagle's plumage and flew after Loki, making a 
mighty rush of sound with his wings in his flight. But when 
the iEsir saw how the hawk flew with the nut, and where 
the eagle was flying, they went out below Asgard and bore 
burdens of plane-shavings thither. As soon as the hawk 
flew into the citadel, he swooped down close by the castle- 
wall; then the JEsir struck fire to the plane-shavings. But 
the eagle could not stop himself when he missed the hawk: 
the feathers of the eagle caught fire, and straightway his 
flight ceased. Then the ^sir were near at hand and slew 
Thjazi the giant within the Gate of the ^sir, and that 
slaying is exceeding famous. 

Now Skadi, the daughter of the giant Thjazi, took helm 
and birnie and all weapons of war and proceeded to Asgard, 
to avenge her father. The iEsir, however, oflFered her recon- 
ciliation and atonement: the first article was that she should 


choose for herself a husband from among the i¥^sir and 
choose by the feet only, seeing no more of him. Then she 
saw the feet of one man, passing fair, and said : ^^ I choose 
this one: in Baldr little can be loathly." But that was Njordr 
of Noatun. She had this article also in her bond of reconcil- 
iation : that the^sir must do a thing she thought they would 
not be able to accomplish : to make her laugh. Then Loki 
did this : he tied a cord to the beard of a goat, the other end 
being about his own genitals, and 'each gave way in turn, 
and each of the two screeched loudly ; then Loki let him- 
self fall onto Skadi's knee, and she laughed. Thereupon re- 
conciliation was made with her on the part of the iEsir. It 
is so said, that Odin did this by way of atonement to Skadi : 
he took Thjazi's eyes and cast them up into the heavens, 
and made of them two stars. 

Then said JEgir : *' It seems to me that Thjazi was a 
mighty man : now of what family was he ? " Bragi an- 
swered : *'*' His father was called Olvaldi, and if I tell thee 
of him, thou wilt think these things wonders. He was very 
rich in gold; but when he died and his sons came to divide 
the inheritance, they determined upon this measure for the 
gold which they divided : each should take as much as his 
mouth would hold, and all the same number of mouthfuls. 
One of them was Thjazi, the second Idi, the third Gangr. 
And we have it as a metaphor among us now, to call gold 
the mouth-tale of these giants ; but we conceal it in secret 
terms or in poesy in this way, that we call it Speech, or 
Word, or Talk, of these giants." 

Then said -^gir : *' I deem that well concealed in secret 
terms." And again said -^gir:" Whence did this art, which 
ye call poesy^ derive its beginnings?" Bragi answered: 
"These were the beginnings thereof: The gods had a dis- 


pute with the folk which are called Vanir, and they ap- 
pointed a peace-meeting between them and established 
peace in this way : they each went to a vat and spat their 
spittle therein. Then at parting the gods took that peace- 
token and would not let it perish, but shaped thereof a 
man. This man is called Kvasir, and he was so wise that 
none could question him concerning anything but that 
he knew the solution. He went up and down the earth to 
give instruction to men; and when he came upon invita- 
tion to the abode of certain dwarves, Fjalar and Galarr, 
they called him into privy converse with them, and killed 
him, letting his blood run into two vats and a kettle. The 
kettle is named Odrerir, and the vats Son and Bodn; they 
blended honey with the blood, and the outcome was that 
mead by the virtue of which he who drinks becomes a 
skald or scholar. The dwarves reported to the ^sir that 
Kvasir had choked on his own shrewdness, since there was 
none so wise there as to be able to question his wisdom. 
"Then these dwarves invited the giant who is called Gil- 
lingr to visit them, and his wife with him. Next the dwarves 
invited Gillingr to row upon the sea with them; but when 
they had gone out from the land, the dwarves rowed into 
the breakers and capsized the boat. Gillingr was unable to 
swim, and he perished ; but the dwarves righted their boat 
and rowed to land. They reported this accident to his wife, 
but she took it grievously and wept aloud. Then Fjalar 
asked her whether it would ease her heart if she should look 
out upon the sea at the spot where he had perished; and 
she desired it. Then he spoke softly to Galarr his brother, 
bidding him go up over the doorway, when she should go 
out, and let a mill-stone fall on her head, saying that her 
weeping grew wearisome to him; and even so he did. 


'^ Now when the giant Suttungr, Gillingr's son, learned of 
this, he went over and took the dwarves and carried them 
out to sea, and set them on a reef which was covered at 
high tide. They besought Suttungr to grant them respite of 
their lives, and as the price of reconciliation offered him 
the precious mead in satisfaction of his father's death. And 
that became a means of reconciliation between them. Sut- 
tungr carried the mead home and concealed it in the place 
called Hnitbjorg, placing his daughter Gunnlod there to 
watch over it. Because of this we call poesy Kvasir's Blood 
or Dwarves' Drink, or Fill, or any kind of liquid of Odrerir, 
or of Bodn, or of Son, or Ferry-Boat of Dwarves — since 
this mead brought them life-ransom from the reef — or 
Suttungr's Mead, or Liquor of Hnitbjorg." 

Then -Sgir said : *' These seem to me dark sayings, to 
call poesy by these names. But how did ye ^sir come at 
Suttungr's Mead?" Bragi answered: "That tale runs thus: 
Odin departed from home and came to a certain place 
where nine thralls were mowing hay. He asked if they de- 
sired him to whet their scythes, and they assented. Then 
he took a hone from his belt and whetted the scythes; 
it seemed to them that the scythes cut better by far, and 
they asked that the hone be sold them. But he put such a 
value on it that whoso desired to buy must give a consider- 
able price : nonetheless all said that they would agree, and 
prayed him to sell it to them. He cast the hone up into 
the air; but since all wished to lay their hands on it, they 
became so intermingled with one another that each struck 
with his scythe against the other's neck. 

^^Odin sought a night's lodging with the giant who is 
called Baugi, Suttungr's brother. Baugi bewailed his hus- 
bandry, saying that his nine thralls had killed one another^ 


and declared that he had no hope of workmen. Odin called 
himself B61 verier in Baugi's presence j he offered to under- 
take nine men's work for Baugi, and demanded for his 
wages one drink of Suttungr's Mead. Baugi declared that 
he had no control whatever over the mead, and said that 
Suttungr was determined to have it to himself, but prom- 
ised to go with Bolverkr and try if they might get the mead. 
During the summer Bolverkr accomplished nine men's 
work for Baugi, but when winter came he asked Baugi 
for his hire. Then they both set out for Suttungr's. Baugi 
told Suttungr his brother of his bargain with Bolverkr; but 
Suttungr flatly refused them a single drop of the mead. 
Then Bolverkr made suggestion to Baugi that they try cer- 
tain wiles, if perchance they might find means to get at the 
mead; and Baugi agreed readily. Thereupon Bolverkr drew 
out the auger called Rati, saying that Baugi must bore the 
rock, if the auger cut. He did so. At last Baugi said that 
the rock was bored through, but Bolverkr blew into the 
auger-hole, and the chips flew up at him. Then he discov- 
ered that Baugi would have deceived him, and he bade him 
bore through the rock. Baugi bored anew ; and when Bol- 
verkr blew a second time, then the chips were blown in 
by the blast. Then Bolverkr turned himself into a serpent 
and crawled into the auger-hole, but Baugi thrust at him 
from behind with the auger and missed him. Bolverkr pro- 
ceeded to the place where Gunnlod was, and lay with her 
three nights; and then she gave him leave to drink three 
draughts of the mead. In the first draught he drank every 
drop out of Odrerir; and in the second, he emptied Bodn; 
and in the third, Son; and then he had all the mead. Then 
he turned himself into the shape of an eagle and flew as 
furiously as he could ; but when Suttungr saw the eagle's 


flight, he too assumed the fashion of an eagle and flew after 
him. When the -^sir saw Odin flying, straightway they 
set out their vats in the court \ and when Odin came into 
Asgard, he spat up the mead into the vats. Nevertheless 
he came so near to being caught by Suttungr that he sent 
some mead backwards, and no heed was taken of this: 
whosoever would might have that, and we call that the 
poetaster's part.' But Odin gave the mead of Suttungr to 
the i¥)sir and to those men who possess the ability to com- 
pose. Therefore we call poesy Odin's Booty and Find, and 
his Drink and Gift, and the Drink of the ^sir." 

Then said -^gir: "In how many ways are the terms of 
skaldship variously phrased, or how many are the essential 
elements of the skaldic art ?" Then Bragi answered: "The 
elements into which all poesy is divided are two." -^gir 
asked: "What two?" Bragi said: "Metaphor and metre." 
"What manner of metaphor is used for skaldic writing?" 
"Three are the types of skaldic metaphor." "Which?" 
"Thus : [first] , calling everything by its name; the second 
type is that which is called ' substitution ; ' the third type 
of metaphor is that which is called ^periphrasis,' and this 
type is employed in such manner: Suppose I take Odin, 
or Thor, or Tjfr, or any of the -^sir or Elves ; and to any 
of them whom I mention, I add the name of a property of 
some other of the -^sir, or I record certain works of his. 
Thereupon he becomes owner of the name, and not the 
one whose name was applied to him : just as when we speak 
of Victory-Tjfr, or Tyr of the Hanged, or Tjfr of Cargoes : 
that then becomes Odin's name: and we call these peri- 
phrastic names. So also with the title Tjfr of the Wain.* 

' See Burns, T/^ Kirk*s Alarm^ nth stanza, for a similar idea. 

* Tyr: see discussion in CL-Vig., p. 647. This word as a proper name refers 


^^ But now one thing must be said to young skalds, to 
such as yearn to attain to the craft of poesy and to increase 
their store of figures with traditional metaphors; or to those 
who crave to acquire the faculty of discerning what is said 
in hidden phrase: let such an one, then, interpret this book 
to his instruction and pleasure. Yet one is not so to forget 
or discredit these traditions as to remove from poesy those 
ancient metaphors with which it has pleased Chief Skalds 
to be content; nor, on the other hand, ought Christian men 
to believe in heathen gods, nor in the truth of these tales 
otherwise than precisely as one may find here in the begin- 
ning of the book. 

II. " Now you may hear examples of the way in which 
Chief Skalds have held it becoming to compose, making 
use of these simple terms and periphrases : as when Arnorr 
Earls' Skald says that Odin is called Allfather: 

Now I'll tell men the virtue 
Of the terrible Jarl; 
Allfather's Song-Surf streams; 
Late my sorrows lighten. 

Here, moreover, he calls poesy the Song-Surf of Allfather. 
Havardr the Halt sang thus: 

Now is the flight of eagles 

Over the field; the sailors 

Of the sea-horses hie them 

To the Hanged-God's gifts and feasting. 

to the one-armed God of War ; but, especially in compounds, it has the sense 
of God^ the God, and is usually applied to Odin. The compounds mentioned here 
by Snorri arc all epithets of Odin. See Gylfaginnlngy p. 30. 


Thus sang Viga-Glumr: 

With the Hanged-God's helmet 
The hosts have ceased from going 
By the brink; not pleasant 
The bravest held the venture. 

Thus sang Refr: 

Oft the Gracious One came to me 
At the holy cup of the Raven-God; 
The king of the stem-ploughed sea's gold 
From the skald in death is sundered. 

Thus sang Eyvindr Skald- Despoiler; 

And Sigurdr, 

He who sated the ravens 

Of Cargo-God 

With the gore of the host 

Of slain Haddings 

Of life was spoiled 

By the earth-rulers 

At Oglo. 

Thus sang Glumr Geirason: 

There the Tj^r of Triumph 
Himself inspired the terror 
Of ships; the gods of breezes 
That favor good men steered them.' 

Thus sang Eyvindr: 


Gondull and SkoguU 
Gauta-Tjfr sent 
To choose from kings 
Who of Yngvi's kin 
Should go with Odin 
And be in Valhall. 

Thus sang Olfr Uggason: 

Swiftly the Far-Famed rideth, 

The Foretelling God, to the fire speeds, 

To the wide pyre of his offspring; 

Through my cheeks praise-songs are pouring. 

Thus sang Thjodolfr of Hvin: 

The slain lay there sand-strewing. 
Spoil for the Single- Eyed 
Dweller in Frigg's bosom; 
In such deeds we rejoiced. 

Hallfredr sang thus: 

The doughty ship-possessor 
With sharpened words and soothfast 
Lures our land, the patient. 
Barley-locked Wife of Thridi. 

Here is an example of this metaphor, that in poesy the 
earth is called the Wife of Odin. Here is told what Ey- 
vindr sang: 

Hermodr and Bragi, 
Spake Hropta-Tyr, 


Go ye to greet the Prince; 
For a king who seemeth 
A champion cometh 
To the hall hither. 

Thus sang Kormakr: 

The Giver of Lands, who bindeth 
The sail to the top, with gold-lace 
Honors him who pours god's verse-mead; 
CMin wrought charms on Rindr. 

Thus sang Steinthorr: 

Much have I to laud 

The ancient- made (though little) 

Liquor of the valiant 

Load of Gunnlod's arm-clasp. 

Thus sang Olfr Uggason: 

There I think the Valkyrs follow, 
And ravens, Victorious Odin 
To the blood of holy Baldr. 
With old tales the hall was painted. 

Thus sang Egill Skallagrimsson : 

No victims for this 
To Vili's brother. 
The High-God, I ofFer, 
Glad to behold him; 


THE POESY OF'S«^itL-pS loi 

• • • • 
. •• « 

•• • 
• •- 

• •• 

• • • 
• • • 

Yet has Mimir's friend 
On me bestowed 
Amends of evil 
Which I account better. 

He has given me the art- 
He, the Wolf's Opposer, 
Accustomed to battle, — 
Of blemish blameless. 

Here he is called High God, and Friend of Mimir, and 
Adversary of the Wolf. 
Thus sang Refr: 

Swift God of Slain, that wieldeth 
The snowy billow's wave-hawks, 
The ships that drive the sea-road, 
To thee we owe the dwarves' drink. 

Thus sang Einarr Tinkling-Scale: 

'T is mine to pour the liquor 
Of the Host-God's mead-cask freely 
Before the ships' swift Speeder: 
For this I win no scorning. 

• • 


• • • • 
•• • • 

« • • 
• • •• 

Thus sang tJlfr Uggason: 

His steed the lordly Heimdallr 
Spurs to the pyre gods builded 
For the fallen son of Odin, 
The All- Wise Raven-Ruler. 

I02 :• : PROSE ED DA 

This is S2i{i']n''''0irihmal : 

• b k 

--^ •■ 

What dream is that? quoth Odin, 
I thought to rise ere day-break 
To make Valhall ready 
For troops of slain ; 
I roused the champions. 
Bade them rise swiftly 
Benches to strew. 
To wash beer-flagons; 
The Valkyrs to pour wine. 
As a Prince were coming. 

Kormakr sang this: 

I pray the precious Ruler 
Of Yngvi's people, o'er me 
To hold his hand, bow-shaking. 
Hroptr bore with him Gungnir. 

Thoralfr sang this: 

The Mighty One of Hlidskjalf 
Spake his mind unto them 
Where the hosts of fearless 
Harekr were slaughtered. 

Thus sang Eyvindr: 

The mead which forth 
From Surtr's sunk dales 
The Strong-through-spells 
Swift-flying bore. 


So sang BragI: 

'Tis seen, on my shield's surface, 
How the Son of the Father of Peoples 
Craved to try his strength full swiftly 
'Gainst the rain-beat Snake earth-circling. 

Thus sang Einarr: 

Since less with Bestla's Offspring 
Prevail most lordly princes 
Than thou, my task is singing 
Thy praise in songs of battle. 

Thus sang Thorvaldr Blending-Skald : 

Now have I much 
In the middle grasped 
Of the son of Borr, 
Of Buri's heir. 

ni. "Now you shall hear how the skalds have termed the 
art of poesy in these metaphorical phrases which have been 
recorded before : for example, by calling it Kvasir's Gore 
and Ship of the Dwarves, Dwarves' Mead, Mead of the 
-^sir. Giants' Father-Ransom, Liquor of Odrerir and of 
Bodn and of Son, and Fullness of these. Liquor of Hnit- 
bjorg, Booty and Find and Gift of Odin, even as has been 
sung in these verses which Einarr Tinkling-Scale wrought : 

I pray the high-souled Warder 
Of earth to hear the Ocean 
Of the ClifF of Dwarves, my verses : 
Hear, Earl, the Gore of Kvasir. 


And as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang further: 

The Dwarves' Crag's Song-wave rushes 

O'er all the dauntless shield-host 

Of him who speeds the fury 

Of the shield-wall's piercing sword-bane. 

Even as Ormr Steinthorsson sang: 

The body of the dame 
And my dead be borne 
Into one hall; the Drink 
Of Dvalinn, Franklins, hear. 

And as Refr sang: 

I reveal the Thought's Drink 
Of the Rock-Folk to Thorsteinn; 
The Billow of the Dwarf-Crag 
Plashes; I bid men hearken. 

Even as Egill sang: 

The Prince requires my lore, 
And bound his praise to pour, 
Odin's Mead I bore 
To English shore. 

And as Glumr Geirason sang: 

Let the Princely Giver hearken: 
I hold the God-King's liquor; 


Let silence, then, be granted, 
While we sing the loss of thanes. 

And as Eyvindr sang: 

A hearing I crave 

For the High One's Liquor, 

While I utter 

Gillingr's Atonement; 

While his kin 

In the Kettle-Brewing 

Of the Gallows-Lord 

To the gods I trace. 

Even as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang: 

The Wave of Odin surges; 

Of Odrerir's Sea a billow 

'Gainst the tongue's song-glade crashes; 

Aye our King's works are goodly. 

And as he sang further: 

Now that which Bodn's Billow 
Bodes forth will straight be uttered: 
Let the War- King's host make silence 
In the hall, and hear the Dwarves' Ship. 

And as Eilifr Gudrunarson sang: 

Grant shall ye gifts of friendship. 
Since grows of Son the Seedling 
In our tongue's fertile sedge-bank: 
True praise of our High Lord. 


Even as Volu-Steinn sang: 

Egill, hear the Heart-streams 
Of Odin beat in cadence 
'Gainst my palate's skerry; 
The God's Spoil to me is given. 

Thus sang Ormr Steinthorsson : 

No verse of mine men need to fear, 
No mockery I intertwine 
In Odin's Spoil; my skill is sure 
In forging songs of praise. 

Thus sang Olfr Uggason: 

I show to host-glad Aleifr 

The Heart-Fjord's Shoal of Odin, — 

My song: him do I summon 

To hear the Gift of Grimnir. 

Poesy is called Sea, or Liquid of the Dwarves, because 
Kvasir's blood was liquid in Odrerir before the mead was 
made, and then it was put into the kettle ; wherefore it is 
called Odin's Kettle-Liquor, even as Ey vindr sang and as 
we have recorded before: 

While his kin 
In the Kettle-Brewing 
Of the Gallows-Lord 
To the gods I trace.' 

* See page 105. 


Moreover, poesy is called Ship or Ale of the Dwarves : ale 
is lidy and lid is a word for ships ; therefore it is held that 
it is for this reason that poesy is now called Ship of the 
Dwarves, even as this verse tells : 

The wit of Gunnlod's Liquor 
In swelling wind-like fullness. 
And the everlasting Dwarves' Ship 
I own, to send the same road. 

IV. *^ What figures should be employed to periphrase the 
name of Thor? Thus: one should call him Son of Odin 
and of Jord, Father of Magni and Modi and Thrtidr, 
Husband of Sif, Stepfather of UUr, Wielder and Posses- 
sor of MjoUnir and of the Girdle of Strength, and of Bil- 
skirnir; Defender of Asgard and of Midgard, Adversary 
and Slayer of Giants and Troll- Women, Smiter of Hrung- 
nir, of Geirrodr and of Thrivaldi, Master of Thjalfi and 
Roskva, Foe of the Midgard Serpent. Foster-father of 
Vingnir and Hlora. So sang Bragi the Skald: 

The line of Odin's Offspring 
Lay not slack on the gunwale. 
When the huge ocean-serpent 
Uncoiled on the sea's bottom. 

Thus sang Olvir Cut-Nose-and-Crop-Ears : 

The encircler of all regions 

And Jord's Son sought each other. 


Thus sang Eilifr: 

Wroth stood Roskva's Brother, 
And Magni's Sire wrought bravely: 
With terror Thor's staunch heart-stone 
Trembled not, nor Thjalli's. 

And thus sang Eysteinn Valdason: 

With glowing eyes Thnidr's Father 
Glared at the sea-road's circler. 
Ere the fishes' watery dwelling 
Flowed in, the boat confounding. 

Eysteinn sang further: 

Swiftly SiPs Husband bouned him 
To haste forth with the Giants 
For his hardy fishing: 
Well sing we Hrimnir's horn-stream. 

Again he sang: 

The earth-fish tugged so fiercely 
That UUr's Kinsman's clenched fists 
Were pulled out past the gunwale; 
The broad planks rent asunder. 

Thus sang Bragi: 

The strong fiend's Terrifier 
In his right hand swung his hammer. 
When he saw the loathly sea-fish 
That all the lands confineth. 


Thus sang Gamli: 

While the Lord of high Bilskirnir, 
Whose heart no falsehood fashioned, 
Swiftly strove to shatter 
The sea-fish with his hammer. 

Thus sang Thorbjorn Lady's-Skald: 

Bravely Thor fought for Asgard 
And the followers of Odin. 

Thus sang Bragi: 

And the vast misshapen circler 

Of the ship's sea-path, fierce-minded, 

Stared from below in anger 

At the Skull-Splitter of Hrungnir. 

Again sang Bragi: 

Well hast Thou, Hewer-in-Sunder 
Of the nine heads of Thrivaldi, 
Kept thy goats' . . . 

Thus sang Eilifr: 

The Merciless Destroyer 
Of the people of the Giants 
Grasped with ready fore-arms 
At the heavy red-hot iron. 

> The remainder of this itansa cmnnot be made ont. 


Thus sangOlfr Uggason: 

Faintly the stout-framed thickling 
A fearful peril called it. 
At the great draught wondrous heavy 
Drawn up by the Lord of he-goats. 

Thus Olfr sang further: 

The very mighty Slayer 

Of the Mountain-Man brought crashing 

His fist on Hymir's temple: 

That was a hurt full deadly. 

Yet again sang Olfr: 

Vimur's ford's Wide-Grappler 
'Gainst the waves smote featly 
The glittering Serpent's head off. 
With old tales the hall was gleaming. 

Here he is called Giant of Vimur's Ford. There is a river 
called Vimur, which Thor waded when he journeyed to 
the garth of Geirrodr. 
Thus sang Vetrlidi the skald: 

Thou didst break the leg of Leikn, 
Didst cause to stoop Starkadr, 
Didst bruise Thrivaldi, 
Didst stand on lifeless Gjalp. 

Thus sang Thorbjorn Lady's-Skald : 

Thou didst smite the head of Keila, 
Smash Kjallandi altogether, 


Ere thou slewest Lutr and Leidi, 
Didst spill the blood of Buseyra; 
Didst hold back Hengjankjapta, — 
Hyrrokkin died before; 
Yet sooner in like fashion 
Svivor from life was taken. 

V. " How should one periphrase Baldr? By calling him Son 
of Odin and Frigg, Husband of Nanna, Father of Forseti, 
Possessor of Hringhorni and Draupnir, Adversary of Hodr, 
Companion of Hel, God of Tears. Olfr Uggason, follow- 
ing the story of Baldr, has composed a long passage in the 
Husdrapa; and examples are recorded earlier to the effect 
that Baldr is so termed. 

VI. "How should one periphrase Njordr? By calling him 
God of the Vanir, or Kinsman of the Vanir, or Wane, 
Father of Freyr and Freyja, God of Wealth-Bestowal. 
So says Thordr Sjareksson : 

Gudrun's self by ill 
Her sons did kill; 
The wise God-bride 
At the Wane's side 
Grieved; men tell 
Odin tamed steeds well; 
'T was not the saying 
Hamdir spared sword-playing. 

Here it is recorded that Skadi departed from Njordr, as 
has already been written. 


VII. " How should one periphrase Frcyr?Thus: by calling 
him Son of Njordr, Brother of Freyja, and also God of 
Vanir, and Kinsman of the Vanir, and Wane, and God of 
the Fertile Season, and God of Wealth-Gifts. 
Thus sang Egill Skallagrimsson : 


For that Grjotbjorn 
In goods and gear 
Freyr and Njordr 
Have fairly blessed. 

Freyr is called Adversary of Beli, even as Ey vindr Spoiler 
of Skalds sang: 

When the EarPs foe 
Wished to inhabit 
The outer bounds 
Of Beli's hater. 

He is the possessor of Skidbladnir and of that boar which 
is called Gold-Bristle, even as it is told here: 

Ivaldi's offspring 

In ancient days 

Went to shape Skidbladnir, 

Foremost of ships. 

Fairly for Freyr, 

Choicely for Njordr's child. 

Thus speaks Olfr Uggason: 

The battle-bold Freyr rideth 
First on the golden-bristled 


Barrow-boar to the bale-fire 
Of Baldr, and leads the people. 

The boar is also called Fearful-Tusk. 

VIII. "How should one periphrase Heimdallr? By calling 
him Son of Nine Mothers, or Watchman of the Gods, as 
already has been written; or White God, Foe of Loki, 
Seeker of Freyja's Necklace. A sword is called Heim- 
dallr's Head : for it is said that he was pierced by a man's 
head. The tale thereof is told in Heimdalar^galdr; and 
ever since a head is called Heimdallr's Measure; a sword 
is called Man's Measure. Heimdallr is the Possessor of 
GuUtoppr; he is also Frequenter of Vagasker and Sing- 
asteinn, where he contended with Loki for the Necklace 
Brisinga-men , he is also called Vindler. Olfr Uggason com- 
posed a long passage in the Husdrapa on that legend, and 
there it is written that they were in the form of seals. 
Heimdallr also is son of Odin. 

IX. ** How should one periphrase T^r ? By calling him the 
One-handed God, and Fosterer of the Wolf, God of Bat- 
tles, Son of Odin. 

X. " How should one periphrase Bragi ? By calling him Hus- 
band of Idunn, First Maker of Poetry, and the Long- 
bearded God (after his name, a man who has a great beard 
is called Beard- Bragi) and Son of Odin. 

XL " How should one periphrase Vidarr? He maybe called 
the Silent God, Possessor of the Iron Shoe, Foe and Slayer 
of Fenris-Wolf, Avenger of the Gods, Divine Dweller in 


the Homesteads of the Fathers, Son of Odin, and Brother 
of the iEsir. 

XII. "How should Vali be periphrased? Thus: by calling 
him Son of Odin and Rindr, Stepson of Frigg, Brother 
of the iEsir, Baldr's Avenger, Foe and Slayer of Hodr, 
Dweller in the Homesteads of the Fathers. 

Xni. " How should one periphrase Hodr? Thus: by call- 
ing him the Blind God, Baldr's Slayer, Thrower of the 
Mistletoe, Son of Odin, Companion of Hel, Foe of Vali. 

XIV. "How should UUr be periphrased? By calling him 
Son of Sif, Stepson of Thor, God of the Snowshoe, God 
of the Bow, Hunting-God, God of the Shield. 

XV. " How should Hoenir be periphrased ? By calling him 
Bench-Mate or Companion or Friend of Odin, the Swift 
of God, the Long-Footed, and King of Clay.' 

XVI. "How should one periphrase Loki? Thus: call him 
Son of Farbauti and Laufey, or of Nal, Brother of Byleistr 
and of Helblindi, Father of the Monster of Van (that is, 
Fenris-Wolf), and of the Vast Monster (that is, the Mid- 
gard Serpent), and of Hel, and Nari, and Ali; Kinsman 
and Uncle, Evil Companion and Bench-Mate of Odin and 
the iEsir, Visitor and Chest-Trapping of Geirrodr, Thief 
of the Giants,of the Goat,of Brisinga-men,and of Idunn's 
Apples, Kinsman of Sleipnir, Husband of Sigy n. Foe of the 
Gods, Harmer of SiPs Hair, Forger of Evil, the Sly God, 

* fAur-konung, 


Slanderer and Cheat of the Gods, Contriver of Baldr's 
Death, the Bound God, Wrangling Foe of Heimdallr and 
of Skadi. Even as Clfr Uggason sings here: 

The famed rain-bow's defender. 
Ready in wisdom, striveth 
At Singasteinn with Loki, 
Farbauti's sin-sly offspring; 
The son of mothers eight and one. 
Mighty in wrath, possesses 
The Stone ere Loki cometh: 
I make known songs of praise. 

Here it is written that Heimdallr is the son of nine mothers. 

XVn. ''Now an account shall be given of the source of 
those metaphors which have but now been recorded, and 
of which no accounts were rendered before : even such as 
. Bragi gave to iEgir, telling how Thor had gone into the 
east to slay trolls, and Odin rode Sleipnir into Jotunheim 
and visited that giant who was named Hrungnir. Hrungnir 
asked what manner of man he with the golden helm might 
be, who rode through air and water; and said that the 
stranger had a wondrous good steed. Odin said he would 
wager his head there was no horse in Jotunheim that 
would prove equally good. Hrungnir answered that it was 
a good horse, but declared that he had a much better- 
paced horse which was called Gold-Mane. Hrungnir had 
become angry, and vaulted up onto his horse and galloped 
after him, thinking to pay him for his boasting. Odin gal- 
loped so furiously that he was on the top of the next hill 
first; but Hrungnir was so filled with the giant's frenzy 


that he took no heed until he had come in beyond the gates 
of Asgard. When he came to the hall-door, the ^sir in- 
vited him to drink. He went within and ordered drink to 
be brought to him, and then those flagons were brought 
in from which Thor was wont to drink; and Hrungnir 
swilled from each in turn. But when he had become 
drunken, then big words were not wanting: he boasted that 
he would lift up Valhall and carry it to Jotunheim, and 
sink Asgard and kill all the gods, save that he would take 
Freyja and Sif home with him. Freyja alone dared pour for 
him ; and he vowed that he would drink all the ale of the 
iSsir. But when his overbearing insolence became tire- 
some to the iEsir, they called on the name of Thor. 

^^Straightway Thor came into the hall, brandishing his 
hammer, and he was very wroth, and asked who had ad- 
vised that these dogs of giants be permitted to drink there, 
or who had granted Hrungnir safe-conduct to be in Valhall, 
or why Freyja should pour for him as at a feast of the iEsir. 
Then Hrungnir answered, looking at Thor with no friendly 
eyes, and said that Odin had invited him to drink, and he 
was under his safe-conduct. Thor declared that Hrungnir 
should repent of that invitation before he got away. Hrung- 
nir answered that Asa-Thor would have scant renown for 
killing him, weaponless as he was : it were a greater trial 
of his courage if he dared fight with Hrungnir on the border 
at Grjotunagard. 'And it was a great folly,* said he, * when 
I left my shield and hone behind at home; if I had my 
weapons here, then we should try single-combat. But as 
matters stand, I declare thee a coward if thou wilt slay me, 
a weaponless man.' Thor was by no means anxious to avoid 
the fight when challenged to the field, for no one had ever 
offered him single-combat before. 


**Then Hrungnir went his way, and galloped furiously 
until he came to Jotunheim. The news of his journey was 
spread abroad among the giants, and it became noised 
abroad that a meeting had been arranged between him and 
Thor; the giants deemed that they had much at stake, who 
should win the victory, since they looked for ill at Thor's 
hands if Hrungnir perished, he being strongest of them all. 
Then the giants made a man of clay at Grjotunagard : he 
was nine miles high and three broad under the arm-pits; 
but they could get no heart big enough to fit him, until they 
took one from a mare. Even that was not steadfast within 
him, when Thor came. Hrungnir had the heart which is no- 
torious, of hard stone and spiked with three corners, even 
as the written character is since formed, which men call 
Hrungnir's Heart. His head also was of stone; his shield 
too was stone, wide and thick, and he had the shield before 
him when he stood at Grjotunagard and waited for Thor. 
Moreover he had a hone for a weapon, and brandished it 
over his shoulders, and he was not a pretty sight. At one 
side of him stood the clay giant, which was called Mokkur- 
kalfi : he was sore afraid, and it is said that he wet himself 
when he saw Thor. 

"Thor went to the meeting-place, and Thjalfi with him. 
Then Thjalfi ran forward to the spot where Hrungnir stood 
and said to him: ^Thou standest unwarily. Giant, having 
the shield before thee : for Thor has seen thee, and comes 
hither down below the earth, and will come at thee from 
beneath.' Then Hrungnir thrust the shield under his feet 
and stood upon it, wielding the hone with both hands. Then 
speedily he saw lightnings and heard great claps of thunder; 
then he saw Thor in God-like anger, who came forward 
furiously and swung the hammer and cast it at Hrungnir 


from afar off. Hrungnir lifted up the hone in both hands and 
cast it against him; it struck the hammer in flight, and the 
hone burst in sunder: one part fell to the earth, and thence 
are come all the flint-rocks; the other burst on Thor's head, 
so that he fell forward to the earth. But the hammer MjoU- 
nir struck Hrungnir in the middle of the head, and smashed 
his skull into small crumbs, and he fell forward upon 
Thor, so that his foot lay over Thor's neck. Thjalfi struck 
at Mokkurkalfi, and he fell with little glory. Thereupon 
Thjalfi went over to Thor and would have lifted Hrungnir's 
foot off him, but could not find sufficient strength. Straight- 
way all the iEsir came up, when they learned that Thor 
was fallen, and would have lifted the foot from off him, and 
could do nothing. Then Magni came up, son of Thor and 
Jarnsaxa : he was then three nights old ; he cast the foot of 
Hrungnir off Thor, and spake : ' See how ill it is, father, 
that I came so late : I had struck this giant dead with my fist, 
methinks, if I had met with him.' Thor arose and welcomed 
his son, saying that he should surely become great; ^And 
I will give thee,' he said, 'the horse Gold-Mane, which 
Hrungnir possessed.' Then Odin spake and said that Thor 
did wrong to give the good horse to the son of a giantess, 
and not to his father. 

"Thor went home to Thrtidvangar, and the hone re- 
mained sticking in his head. Then came the wise woman 
who was called Groa, wife of Aurvandill the Valiant : she 
sang her spells over Thor .until the hone was loosened. But 
when Thor knew that, and thought that there was hope 
that the hone might be removed, he desired to reward Groa 
for her leech-craft and make her glad, and told her these 
things : that he had waded from the north over Icy Stream 
and had borne Aurvandill in a basket on his back from the 


north out of Jotunheim. And he added for a token, that one 
of Aurvandill's toes had stuck out of the basket, and became 
frozen J wherefore Thor broke it off and cast it up into 
the heavens, and made thereof the star called Aurvandill's 
Toe. Thor said that it would not be long ere Aurvandill 
came home : but Groa was so rejoiced that she forgot her 
incantations, and the hone was not loosened, and stands 
yet in Thor's head. Therefore it is forbidden to cast a hone 
across the floor, for then the hone is stirred in Thor's head. 
Thjodolfr of Hvin has made a song after this tale in the 
Haustlbng. [It says there: 

On the high and painted surface 
Of the hollow shield, still further 
One may see how the Giant's Terror 
Sought the home of Grjotun; 
The angry son of Jord drove 
To the play of steel j below him 
Thundered the moon-way; rage swelled 
In the heart of Meili's Brother. 

All the bright gods' high mansions 
Burned before Ullr's kinsman; 
With hail the earth was beaten 
Along his course, when the he-goats 
Drew the god of the smooth wain forward 
To meet the grisly giant: 
The Earth, the Spouse of Odin, 
Straightway reft asunder. 

No truce made Baldr's brother 
With the bitter foe of earth-folk. 


Rocks shook, and crags were shivered; 
The shining Upper Heaven 
Burned; I saw the giant 
Of the boat-sailed sea-reef waver 
And give way fast before him, 
Seeing his war-like Slayer. 

Swiftly the shining shield-rim 

Shot 'ne^th the Cliff- Ward's shoe-soles; 

That was the wise gods' mandate, 

The War- Valkyrs willed it. 

The champion of the Waste-Land 

Not long thereafter waited 

For the speedy blow delivered 

By the Friend of the snout-troll's crusher. 

He who of breath despoileth 
Beli's baleful hirelings 
Felled on the shield rim-circled 
The fiend of the roaring mountain ; 
The monster of the glen-field 
Before the mighty hammer 
Sank, when the Hill-Danes' Breaker 
Struck down the hideous caitiff. 

Then the hone hard-broken 
Hurled by the Ogress-lover 
Whirred into the brain-ridge 
Of Earth's Son, that the whetter 
Of steels, sticking unloosened 
In the skull of Odin's offspring. 


Stood there all besprinkled 
With Einridi's blood. 

Until the wise ale-goddess, 

With wondrous lays, enchanted 

The vaunted woe, rust-ruddy, 

From the Wain-God's sloping temples; 

Painted on its circuit 

I see them clearly pictured: 

The fair-bossed shield, with stories 

Figured, I had from Thorleifr."] ' 

XVIII. Then saidiEgir: "Methinks Hrungnir was of great 
might. Did Thor accomplish yet more valorous deeds when 
he had to do with the trolls?" And Bragi answered: "It 
is worthy to be told at length, how Thor went to Geirrodr's 
dwelling. At that time he had not the hammer Mjollnir 
with him, nor his Girdle of Might, nor the iron gauntlets : 
and that was the fault of Loki, who went with him. For 
once, flying in his sport with Frigg*s hawk-plumage, it had 
happened to Loki to fly for curiosity's sake into Geirrodr's 
court. There he saw a great hall, and alighted and looked 
in through the window; and Geirrodr looked up and saw 
him, and commanded that the bird be taken and brought to 
him. But he who was sent could scarce get to the top of the 
wall, so high was it; and it seemed pleasant to Loki to see 
the man striving with toil and pains to reach him, and he 
thought it was not yet time to fly away until the other had 
accomplished the perilous climb. When the man pressed 
hard after him, then he stretched his wings for flight, and 
thrust out vehemently, but now his feet were stuck fast. 

' Pattages enclosed within brackets are considered by Jonsson to be spurious* 


So Loki was taken and brought before Geirrodr the giant ; 
but when Geirrodr saw his eyes, he suspected that this 
might be a man, and bade him answer; but Loki was silent. 
Then Geirrodr shut Loki into a chest and starved him 
there three months. And now when Geirrodr took him out 
and commanded him to speak, Loki told who he was ; and 
by way of ransom for his life he swore to Geirrodr with 
oaths that he would getThor to come into Geirrodr's dwell- 
ing in such a fashion that he should have neither hammer 
nor Girdle of Might with him. 

^^Thor came to spend the night with that giantess who 
was called Gridr, mother of Vidarr the Silent. She told 
Thorthe truth concerning Geirrodr, that he was a crafty 
giant and ill to deal with ; and she lent him the Girdle of 
Might and iron gloves which she possessed, and her staff 
also, which was called Gridr's Rod. Then Thor proceeded 
to the river named Vimur, greatest of all rivers. There he 
girded himself with the Girdle of Might and braced firmly 
downstream with Gridr's Rod, and Loki held on behind 
by the Girdle of Might. When Thor came to mid-current, 
the river waxed so greatly that it broke high upon his shoul- 
ders. Then Thor sang this : 

Wax thou not now, Vimur, 
For I fain would wade thee 
Into the Giants' garth: 
Know thou, if thou waxest. 
Then waxeth God-strength in me 
As high up as the heaven. 

" Then Thor saw Gjalp, daughter of Geirrodr, stand- 
ing in certain ravines, one leg in each, spanning the river, 


and she was causing the spate. Then Thor snatched up a 
great stone out of the river and cast it at her, saying these 
words: * At its source should a river be stemmed.' Nor did 
he miss that at which he threw. In that moment he came 
to the shore and took hold of a rowan-clump, and so 
climbed out of the river; whence comes the saying that 
rowan is Thor's deliverance. 

"Now when Thor came before Geirrodr, the com- 
panions were shown first into the goat-fold ' for their en- 
tertainment, and there was one chair there for a seat, and 
Thor sat there. Then he became aware that the chair moved 
under him up toward the roof: he thrust Grldr's Rod up 
against the rafters and pushed back hard against the chair. 
Then there was a great crash, and screaming followed. 
Under the chair had been Geirrodr's daughters, Gjalp and 
Greip ; and he had broken both their backs. Then Geirrodr 
had Thor called into the hall to play games. There were 
great fires the whole length of the hall. When Thor came 
up over against Geirrodr, then Geirrodr took up a glow- 
ing bar of iron with the tongs and cast it at Thor. Thor 
caught it with his iron gloves and raised the bar in the air, 
but Geirrodr leapt behind an iron pillar to save himself. 
Thor lifted up the bar and threw it, and it passed through 
the pillar and through Geirrodr and through the wall, 
and so on out, even into the earth. Eilifr Gudrunarson has 
wrought verses on this story, in Thorsdrapa: 

[The winding sea-snake's father 
Did wile from home the slayer 

' So Cod. Reg. aod Cod. Worm. ; Cod. Upsal. and Cod. Hypo, read gesta hus 
=guest*t house, Gering, Simrock, and Anderson prefer the latter reading. I 
have followed Jonsson in accepting geita hut. 


Of the life of the gods' grim foemen; 

— (Ever was Loptr a liar) — 

The never faithful Searcher 

Of the heart of the fearless Thunderer 

Declared green ways were lying 

To the walled stead of Geirrodr. 

No long space Thor let Loki 
Lure him to the going: 
They yearned to overmaster 
Thorn's offspring, when the Seeker 
Of Idi's garth, than giants 
Greater in might, made ready 
In ancient days, for faring 
To the Giants' Seat, from Odin's. 

Further in the faring 
Forward went warlike Thjalfi 
With the divine Host-Cheerer 
Than the deceiving lover 
Of her of enchanted singing: 
— (I chant the Ale of Odin) — 
The hill dame's Mocker measured 
The moor with hollow foot-soles. 

And the war-wonted journeyed 
Till the hill- women's Waster 
Came to Gangr's blood, the Vimur; 
Then Loki's bale-repeller. 
Eager in anger, lavish 
Of valor, longed to struggle 


Against the maid, kinswoman 
Of the sedge-cowled giant. 

And the honor-lessener 

Of the Lady of the Sea-Crag 

Won foot-hold in the surging 

Of the hail-rolled leaping hill-spate; 

The rock-knave's swift Pursuer 

Passed the broad stream of his stafPs road, 

Where the foam-flecked mighty rivers 

Frothed with raging venom. 

There they set the staves before them 
In the streaming grove of dogfish ; 
The wind-wood's slippery pebbles, 
Smitten to speech, slept not; 
The clashing rod did rattle 
'Gainst the worn rocks, and the rapid 
Of the fells howled, storm-smitten. 
On the river's stony anvil. 

The Weaver of the Girdle 
Beheld the washing slope-stream 
Fall on his hard-grown shoulders: 
No help he found to save him; 
The Minisher of hill-folk 
Caused Might to grow within him 
Even to the roof of heaven, 
Till the rushing flood should ebb. 

The fair warriors of the iEsir, 
In battle wise, fast waded. 


And the surging pool, sward-sweeping, 

Streamed: the earth-drift's billow, 

Blown by the mighty tempest. 

Tugged with monstrous fury 

At the terrible oppressor 

Of the earth-born tribe of cave- folk. 

Till Thjalfi came uplifted 

On his lord Thor's wide shield-strap: 

That was a mighty thew-test 

For the Prop of Heaven; the maidens 

Of the harmful giant stiffly 

Held the stream stubborn against them; 

The Giantess-Destroyer 

With Gridr's stafF fared sternly. 

Nor did their hearts of rancor 
Droop in the men unblemished, 
Nor courage 'gainst the headlong 
Fall of the current fail them: 
A fiercer-daring spirit 
Flamed in the dauntless God's breast,— 
With terror Thor's staunch heart-stone 
Trembled not, nor Thjalfi's. 

And afterward the haters 

Of the host of sword-companions, 

The shatterers of bucklers. 

Dinned on the shield of giants. 

Ere the destroying peoples 

Of the shingle-drift of monsters 


Wrought the helm-pIay of Hedinn 
'Gainst the rock-dwelling marksmen. 

The hostile folk of sea-heights 

Fled before the Oppressor 

Of headland tribes; the dalesmen 

Of the hill-tops, imperilled, 

Fled, when Odin's kindred 

Stood, enduring staunchly; 

The Danes of the flood-reePs border 

Bowed down to the Flame-Shaker. 

Where the chiefs, with thoughts of valor 
Imbued, marched into Thorn's house, 
A mighty crash resounded 
Of the cave's ring-wall; the slayer 
Of the mountain-reindeer-people 
On the giant-maiden's wide hood 
Was brought in bitter peril: 
There was baleful peace-talk. 

And they pressed the high head, bearing 
The piercing brow-moon's eye-flame 
Against the hill-hall's rafters; 
On the high roof-tree broken 
He crushed those raging women: 
The swinging Storm-car's Guider 
Burst the stout, ancient back-ridge 
And breast-bones of both women. 

Earth's Son became familiar 

With knowledge strange; the cave-men 


Of the land of stone o'ercame not, 
Nor long with ale were merry: 
The frightful elm-string's plucker, 
The friend of Sudri, hurtled 
The hot bar, in the forge fused, 
Into the hand of Odin's Gladdener. 

So that Gunnr's Swift-Speeder 
Seized (the Friend of Freyja), 
With quick hand-gulps, the molten 
High-raised draught of metal. 
When the fire-brand, glowing. 
Flew with maddened fury 
From the giant's gripping fingers 
To the grim Sire of Thriidr. 

The hall of the doughty trembled 
When he dashed the massy forehead 
Of the hill-wight 'gainst the bottom 
Of the house-wall's ancient column; 
UUr's glorious step-sire 
With the glowing bar of mischief 
Struck with his whole strength downward 
At the hill-knave's mid-girdle. 

The God with gory hammer 
Crushed utterly Glaumr's lineage j 
The Hunter of the Kindred 
Of the hearth-dame was victorious; 
The Plucker of the Bow-String 
Lacked not his people's valor, — 


The Chariot-God, who swiftly 

Wrought grief to the Giant's bench-thanes. 

He to whom hosts make offering 
Hewed down the dolt-like dwellei^s 
Of the cloud-abyss of Elf-Home, 
Crushing them with the fragment 
Of Gridr's Rod: the litter 
Of hawks, the race of Listi 
Could not harm the help- strong 
Queller of Ella's Stone-Folk.] 

XIX. " How should one periphraseFrigg? Call her Daugh- 
ter of Fjorgynn, Wife of Odin, Mother of Baldr, Co- Wife 
of Jord and Rindr and Gunnlod and Gridr, Mother-in-law 
of Nanna, Lady of the iEsir and Asynjur, Mistress of 
FuUa and of the Hawk-Plumage and of Fensalir. 

XX. "How should one periphrase Freyja? Thus: by call- 
ing her Daughter of Njordr, Sister of Freyr, Wife of Odr, 
Mother of Hnoss, Possessor of the Slain, of Sessrumnir, of 
the Gib-Cats, and of Brisinga-men ; Goddess of the Vanir, 
Lady of the Vanir, Goddess Beautiful in Tears, Goddess 
of Love. All the goddesses may be periphrased thus : by 
calling them by the name of another, and naming them in 
terms of their possessions or their works or their kindred. 

[XXL " How should Sif be periphrased ? By calling her 
Wife of Thor, Mother of Ullr, Fair-Haired Goddess, Co- 
Wife of Jarnsaxa, Mother of Thrudr. 

XXn. " How should Idunn be periphrased ? Thus : by call- 


ing her Wife of Bragi, and Keeper of the Apples; and the 
apples should be called Age-Elixir of the iSsir. Idunn is 
also called Spoil of*the Giant Thjazi, according to the tale 
that has been told before, how he took her away from the 
^sir. Thjodolfr of Hvin composed verses after that tale 
in the Haustlong: 

How shall I make voice-payment 
Meetly for the shield-bridge 

• •••••• 

Of the war-wall Thorleifr gave me? 
I survey the truceless faring 
Of the three gods strife-foremost, 
And Thjatsi's, on the shining 
Cheek of the shield of battle. 

The Spoiler of the Lady 

Swiftly flew with tumult 

To meet the high god-rulers 

Long hence in eagle-plumage; 

The erne in old days lighted 

Where the iEsir meat were bearing 

To the fire-pit; the Giant 

Of the rocks was called no faint-heart. 

The skilful god-deceiver 

To the gods proved a stern sharer 

Of bones: the high Instructor 

Of ^sir, helmet-hooded, 

Saw some power checked the seething; 

The sea-mew, very crafty, 


Spake from the ancient tree-trunk; 
Loki was ill-willed toward him. 

The wolfish monster ordered 
Meili's Sire to deal him 
Food from the holy trencher: 
The friend of Him of Ravens 
To blow the fire was chosen; 
The Giant-King, flesh-greedy, 
Sank down, where the guileless 
Craft-sparing gods were gathered. 

The comely Lord of All Things 

Commanded Loki swiftly 

To part the buU's-meat, slaughtered 

By Skadi's ringing bow-string, 

Among the folk, but straightway 

The cunning food-defiler 

Of the iEsir filched the quarters. 

All four, from the broad table. 

And the hungry Sire of Giants 

Savagely ate the yoke-beast 

From the oak-tree's sheltering branches, — 

That was in ancient ages, — 

Ere the wise-minded Loki, 

Warder of war-spoil, smote him. 

Boldest of foes of Earth-Folk, 

With a pole betwixt the shoulders. 

The Arm-Burden then of Sigyn, 
Whom all the gods in bonds see. 


Firmly forthwith was fastened 

To the Fosterer of Skadi; 

To Jotunheim's Strong Dweller 

The pole stuck, and the fingers 

Of Loki too, companion 

Of Hoenir, clung to the pole's end. 

The Bird of Blood flew upward 
(Blithesome in his quarry) 
A long way off with Loki, 
The lither God, that almost 
Wolf's Sire was rent asunder; 
Thor's friend must sue for mercy. 
Such peace as he might purchase 
To pray: nigh slain was Loptr. 

Then Hymir's Kinsman ordered 
The crafty god, pain-maddened, 
To wile to him the Maiden 
Who warded the iEsir's age-cure; 
Ere long the necklace-robber, 
Brisinga's thief, lured slyly 
The Dame of Brunnakr's brooklet 
Into the Base One's dwelling. 

At that the steep slope-dwellers 
No sorrow felt; then Idunn 
Was from the south, by giants 
New-stolen, come among them. 
All Ingvi-Freyr's high kindred. 
Hoary and old, to council 


Hasted; grewsome of fashion 

And ugly all the gods were. 


• •••••• 

This heard I, that the Staunch Friend 
Of Hoenir — oft thereafter 
With wiles he tricked the iEsir — 
Flew, in hawk-wings hidden ; 
And the vile Sire of Giants, 
Vigorous Wing-Plume- Wielder, 
Hurtled on eagle-pinion 
After the hawk-shaped Loki. 

Swiftly the gods have kindled 
A fire; and the sovereign rulers 
Sustained the flame with shavings: 
Scorched was the flying giant, — 
He plunged down in mid-soaring: 
'Tis pictured on the giant's 
Sole-bridge, the shield which, painted 
With stories, Thorleifr gave me.] 

"This is the correct manner of periphrasing the iEsir: 
To call each of them by the name of another, and to des- 
ignate him in terms of his works or his possessions or his 

XXni. "How should the heaven be periphrased? Thus: 
call it Skull of Ymir, and hence. Giant's Skull; Task or 
Burden of the Dwarves, or Helm of Vestri and Austri, 
Sudri, or Nordri; Land of the Sun, of the Moon, and of the 

' "Brjala^ur tcxti" — Jonsson, Edda (Reykjavik, 1907), p. 384.Thc coodition 
of the text makes translation impossible. 


Stars of Heaven, of the Wains and the Winds; Helm, 
or House, of the Air and the Earth and the Sun. So sang 
Arnorr Earls'-Skald : 

So large of gifts ne'er mounted 
Young Lord of Shields on ship-deck 
'Neath the ancient Skull of Ymir : 
Splendid this Prince's largess. 

And as he sang again: 

Bright grows the sun at dusking, 
The earth sinks into the dark sea. 
The Toil of Austri bursteth ; 
All the ocean on the fells breaks. 

Thus sang Bodvarr the Halt: 

For never 'neath the Sun's Plain 
Shall come a nobler Land-Ward, 
Keener in battle-onset, 
Nor a brother of Ingi better. 

And as Thjodolfr of Hvin sang: 

Jord's Son drove to the steel-play 

(High swelled the godlike anger 

In the mind of Meili's Brother), 

And the Moon-Way 'neath him quivered. 

Even as sang Ormr Barrey's-Skald : 

Lady of Draupnir's gore-streak. 
However great I know him. 


The wielder (by right he ruleth) 
Of the Wain's Road sees me gladly. 

Even as the skald Bragi sang: 

He who threw the dead eyes 
Of Thjazi, Skadi's father. 
Into the Winds' Wide Basin 
O'er the abodes of men-folk many. 

And as Markus sang: 

'Tis long since the dear-loved Warder 
Of sea-men was born on the wave-girt earth-bottom 
Of the Storm-Container; each man praises 
The sublime age of the Ring-Dispenser. 

Even as Steinn Herdisarson sang: 

I sing the holy Ruler 
Of the high World-Tent rather 
Than men, for very precious 
Is He: His praises tell I. 

And as Arnorr Earls'-Skald sang: 

Help, dear King of Heaven, 

The Day's Plain, help my Hermundr. 

And as Arnorr sang further: 

Soothfast King of the Sun-Tents, 
Help stout-hearted Rognvaldr. 


And as Hallvardr sang: 

Knutr wards the land, as the Ruler 
Of All wards the radiant Fell-Hall. 

As Arnorr sang: 

Michael, wise of understanding. 

Weighs what seems done ill, and good things: 

Then the Monarch of the Sun's Helm 

At the Doom-Seat parts all mortals. 

XXIV, " How should one perlphrase the earth ? Thus : by 
calling her Flesh of Ymir, and Mother of Thor, Daughter 
of Onarr, Odin's Bride, Co- Wife of Frigg and Rindr and 
Gunnlod, Mother-in-law of Sif, Floor and Bottom of the 
Storm-Hall, Sea of Beasts, Daughter of Night, Sister of 
Audr and of Day. Even as Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler sang: 

Now the beaming gold .is hidden 
In the body of the Mother 
Of the Giants' Foe; the counsels 
Of a kindred strong are mighty. 

As sang Hallfredr Troublous-Skald: 

In council 't was determined 
That the King's friend, wise in counsel. 
Should wed the Land, sole Daughter 
Of Onarr, greenly wooded. 

And he said further: 


The Raven- Abode's brave Ruler 
Got the broad-faced Bride of Odin, 
The Land, with kingly counsels 
Of weapons, lured unto him. 

Even as Thjodolfr sang: 

The Ruler, glad in Warriors, 

In the rowed hull doth fasten 

The ships of men to the strand's end. 

At the head of the sea keel-ridden. 

As Hallfredr sang: 

Full loath to let the Land slip 
I hold the lordly Spear- Prince: 
Audr's sister is subjected 
To the splendid Treasure-Spender. 

Thus sang Thjodolfr: 

Far ofF the dart-slow sluggard 
Stood, when the Sword-Inciter 
In ancient days took to him 
The unripe Co- Wife of Rindr. 

XXV. "How should one periphrase the sea? Thus: by 
calling it Ymir's Blood; Visitor of the Gods; Husband of 
Ran; Father of iEgir's Daughters, of them who are called 
Himinglaeva, Dufa, Blodughadda, Hefring, Udr, Hronn, 
Bylgja, Bara, Kolga; Land of Ran and of iEgir's Daugh- 
ters, of Ships and of ships' names, of the Keel, of Beaks, 
of Planks and Seams, of Fishes, of Ice; Way and Road of 


Sea-Kings; likewise Encircler of Islands; House of Sands 
and of Kelp and of Reefs ; Land of Fishing-gear, of Sea- 
Fowls, and of Fair Wind. Even as Ormr Barrey's-Skald 

On the gravelly beach of good ships 

Grates the Blood of Ymir. 

As Refr sang: 

The mild deer of the masthead beareth 
O'er the murky water from the westward 
Her wave-pressed bows; the land I look for 
Before the beak; the Whale-Home shallows. 

Even as Steinn sang: 

When the fallow fell-wall's Whirlwinds 
Wove o'er the waves full fiercely, 
And i¥^gir's storm-glad daughters 
Tore, of grim frost begotten. 

And as Refr sang: 

Gymir's wet-cold Spae-Wife 
Wiles the Bear of Twisted Cables 
Oft into iEgir's wide jaws, 
Where the angry billow breaketh. 

It is said here that iEgir and Gymir are both the same. 
And he sang further: 

And the Sea-Peak's Sleipnir slitteth 
The stormy breast rain-driven. 


The wave, with red stain running 
Out of white Ran's mouth. 

As Einarr Skulason sang: 

The stern snow-wind has thrust out 
With strength, the ship from landward 
The Swan-Land's steed sees Iceland 
Into the surf receding. 

And as he sang further: 

Many a stiff rowlock straineth, 
And the noisy Strand of Fish-Gear, 
The Sea, the lands o'ercometh : 
Men's hands oft span the stays. 

And he sang yet further: 

The gray Isle-Fetter urges 
Heiti's raven-ship onward; 
Gold beaks the fleet ships carry: 
Rich that faring to the Chieftain. 

And he sang again: 

The Isle-Rim autumn chilly 
Impels the dock's cold snowshoe. 

And thus also: 

The cool lands' Surging-Girdle 
Before the beaks springs asunder. 


As Snsebjorn sang: 

They say nine brides of skerries 
Swiftly move the Sea-Churn 
Of Grotti's Island-Flour-Bin 
Beyond the Earth's last outskirts — 
They who long the corny ale ground 
Of Amlodi; the Giver 
Of Rings now cuts with ship's beak 
The Abiding-Place of boat-sides. 

Here the sea is called Amlodi's Churn. 
As Einarr Skulason sang: 

The sturdy drive-nails weaken 
In the swift swirl, where paleth 
Rakni's Heaving Plain: wind 
Puffs the reefs against the stays. 

XXVI. "How should one periphrase the sun? By calling 
her Daughter of Mundilfari, Sister of the Moon, Wife of 
Glenr, Fire of Heaven and of the Air. Even as Skuli Thor- 
steinsson sang: 

Glenr's god-blithe Bed-Mate wadeth 
Into the Goddess's mansion 
With rays; then the good light cometh 
Of gray-sarked Mani downward. 

Thus sang Einarr Skulason: 

Whereso the lofty flickering 

Flame of the World's Hall swimmeth 


O'er our loved friend, who hateth 
And lavisheth the sea-gold. 

XXVII. " How should the wind be periphrased?Thus : call 
it Son of Fornjotr, Brother of the Sea and of Fire, Scathe 
or Ruin or Hound or Wolf of the Wood or of the Sail or 
of the Rigging. 
Thus spake Sveinn in the Nordrsetu-drapa: 

First began to fly 
Fornjotr's sons ill-shapen. 

XXVIII. "How should one periphrase fire? Thus: call 
it Brother of the Wind and the Sea, Ruin and Destruc- 
tion of Wood and of Houses, Halfr's Bane, Sun of 

XXIX. " How should winter be periphrased ? Thus : call 
it Son of Vindsvalr, Destruction of Serpents, Tempest- 
Season. Thus sang Ormr Steinthorsson : 

To the blind man I proffer 
This blessing: Vindsvalr's Son. 

Thus sang Asgrimr: 

The warlike Spoil-Bestower, 
Lavish of Wealth, that winter — 
Snake's- Woe — in Thrandheim tarried; 
The folk knew thy true actions. 

XXX. '* How should one periphrase summer ? Thus : call 


it Son of Svasudr and Comfort of Serpents, and Growth 
of Men. Even as Egill Skallagrimsson sang: 

We shall wave our swords, O Dyer 

Of WolPs Teeth, make them glitter: 

A deed we have for wreaking 

In the Comfort of Dale-Serpents. I 

XXXI. "How should man be periphrased? By his works, 
by that which he gives or receives or does; he may also be 
periphrased in terms of his property, those things which he 
possesses, and, if he be liberal, of his liberality; likewise 
in terms of the families from which he descended, as well 
as of those which have sprung from him. How is one to 
periphrase him in terms of these things ? Thus : by calling 
him accomplisher or performer of his goings or his con- 
duct, of his battles or sea-voyages or huntings or weapons 
or ships. And because he is a tester of weapons and a win- 
ner of battles, — the words for * winner* and *wood' being 
the same, as are also those for 'tester* and 'rowan,* — 
therefore, from these phrases, skalds have called man Ash 
or Maple, Grove, or other masculine tree-names, and peri- 
phrased him in such expressions in terms of battles or ships 
or possessions. It is also correct to periphrase man with 
all the names of the i^lsir; also with giant-terms, and this 
last is for the most part for mocking or libellous purposes. 
Periphrasis with the names of elves is held to be favorable. 
"Woman should be periphrased with reference to all 
female garments, gold and jewels, ale or wine or any other 
drink, or to that which she dispenses or gives; likewise 
with reference to ale- vessels, and to all those things which 
it becomes her to perform or to give. It is correct to peri- 


phrase her thus: by calling her giver or user of that of which 
she partakes. But the words for 'giver' and *user' are also 
names of trees; therefore woman is called in metaphor- 
ical speech by all feminine tree-names. Woman is peri- 
phrased with reference to jewels or agates for this reason : 
in heathen times what was called a ' stone-necklace/ which 
they wore about the neck, was a part of a woman's apparel; 
now it is used figuratively in such a way as to periphrase 
woman with stones and all names of stones. Woman is also 
metaphorically called by the names of the Asynjur or the 
Valkyrs or Norns or women of supernatural kind. It is also 
correct to periphrase woman in terms of all her conduct 
or property or family. 

XXXII. " How should gold be periphrased ? Thus : by call- 
ing itiEgir's Fire, and Needles of Glasir,Hair of Sif, Snood 
of FuUa, Freyja's Tears, Talk and Voice and Word of 
Giants, Draupnir's Drop and Rain or Shower of Draup- 
nir, or of Freyja's Eyes, Otter's Ransom, Forced Payment 
of the iEsir, Seed of Fyris-Plain, Cairn-Roof of Holgi, 
Fire of all Waters and of the Hand, Stone and Reef or 
Gleam of the Hand. 

XXXni." Wherefore is gold called iEgir's Fire? This tale 
is to the same purport as we have told before : JEgir went 
to Asgard to a feast, but when he was ready to return home, 
he invited Odin and all the iEsir to visit him in three 
months' time. First came Odin and Njordr, Freyr, Tjfr, 
Bragi, Vidarr, Loki; likewise the Asynjur: Frigg, Freyja, 
Gcfjun, Skadi, Idunn, Sif. Thor was not there, having 
gone into the eastern lands to slay trolls. When the gods had 
sat down in their places, straightway i^lgir had bright gold 



brought in onto the floor of the hall, and the gold gave 
forth light and illumined the hall like fire : and it was used 
there for lights at his banquet, even as in Valhall swords 
were used in place of fire. Then Loki bandied sharp words 
with all the gods, and slew one of iEgir's thralls, him who 
was called Five-Finger; another of his thralls was named 
Fire-Kindler. Ran is the name of iEgir's wife, and their 
daughters are nine, even as we have written before. At 
this feast all things were self-served, both food and ale, and 
all implements needful to the feast. Then the ^sir became 
aware that Ran had that net wherein she was wont to catch 
all men who go upon the sea. Now this tale is to show 
whence it comes that gold is called Fire or Light or Bright- 
ness of i¥lgir,of Ran,or of i^lgir's daughters ; and now such 
use is made of these metaphors that gold is called Fire 
of the Sea, and of all names of the sea, even as ^gir or 
Ran had names associated with the sea. Therefore gold is 
now called Fire of Waters or of Rivers, and of all river- 

^^ But these names have fared just as other figures also 
have done : the later skalds have composed after the exam- 
ples of the old skalds, even those examples which stood in 
their poems, but were later expanded into such forms as 
seemed to later poets to be like what was written before: 
as a lake is to the sea, or the river to the lake, or the brook 
to the river. Therefore all these are called new figures, when 
terms are expanded to greater length than what was re- 
corded before; and all this seems well an4 good, so far as it 
concurs with verisimilitude and nature. As Bragi the Skald 

I was given by the Battler 

The fire of the Brook of Sea-Fish: 


He gave it me, with mercy, 

For the Drink of the Mountain-Giant. 

XXXIV. " Why is gold called the Needles, or Leaves, of 
Glasir? In Asgard, before the doors of Valhall, there stands 
a grove which is called Glasir, and its leafage is all red 
gold, even as is sung here: 

Glasir stands 

With golden leafage 

Before the High God's halls. 

Far and wide, this tree is the fairest known among gods 
and men. 

XXXV. "Why is gold called Sifs Hair? Loki Laufeyar- 
son, for mischiefs sake, cut ofF aH SiPs hair. But when 
Thor learned of this, he seized Loki, and would have 
broken every bone in him, had he not sworn to get the 
Black Elves to make Sif hair of gold, such that it would 
grow like other hair. After that, Loki went to those dwarves 
who are called Ivaldi's Sons ; and they made the hair, and 
Skidbladnir also, and the spear which became Odin's pos- 
session, and was called Gungnir. Then Loki wagered his 
head with the dwarf called Brokkr that Brokkr's brother 
Sindri could not make three other precious things equal 
in virtue to these. Now when they came to the smithy, 
Sindri laid a pigskin in the hearth and bade Brokkr blow, 
and did not cease work until he took out of the hearth 
that which he had laid therein. But when he went out of 
the smithy, while the other dwarf was blowing, straight- 
way a fly settled upon his hand and stung : yet he blew on 


as before, until the smith took the work out of the hearth; 
and it was a boar, with mane and bristles of gold. Next, 
he laid gold in the hearth and bade Brokkr blow and cease 
not from his blast until he should return. He went out; 
but again the fly came and settled on Brokkr's neck, and 
bit now half again as hard as before; yet he blew even 
until the smith took from the hearth that gold ring which 
is called Draupnir. Then Sindri laid iron in the hearth and 
bade him blow, saying that it would be spoiled if the blast 
failed. Straightway the fly settled between Brokkr's eyes 
and stung his eyelid, but when the blood fell into his eyes 
so that he could not see, then he clutched at it with his 
hand as swiftly as he could, — while the bellows grew flat, 
— and he swept the fly from him. Then the smith came 
thither and said that it had come near to spoiling all that 
was in the hearth. Then he took from the forge a hammer, 
put all the precious works into the hands of Brokkr his 
brother, and bade him go with them to Asgard and claim 
the wager. 

"Now when he and Loki brought forward the precious 
gifts, the JEs'iT sat down in the seats of judgment; and 
that verdict was to prevail which Odin, Thor, and Freyr 
should render. Then Loki gave Odin the spear Gungnir, 
and to Thor the hair which Sif was to have, and Ski'd- 
bladnir to Freyr, and told the virtues of all these things: 
that the spear would never stop in its thrust; the hair 
would grow to the flesh as soon as it came upon Sif s head; 
and Skidbladnir would have a favoring breeze as soon as 
the sail was raised, in whatsoever direction it might go, 
but could be folded together like a napkin and be kept in 
Frevr's pouch if he so desired. Then Brokkr brought for- 
his gifts : he gave to Odin the ring, saying that eight 


rings of the same weight would drop from it every ninth 
night; to Frcyr he gave the boar, saying that it could run 
through air and water better than any horse, and it could 
never become so dark with night or gloom of the Murky 
Regions that there should not be sufficient light where he 
went, such was the glow from its mane and bristles. Then 
he gave the hammer to Thor, and said that Thor might 
smite as hard as he desired, whatsoever might be before 
him, and the hammer would not fail; and if he threw it 
at anything, it would never miss, and never fly so far as 
not to return to his hand; and if he desired, he might keep 
it in his sark, it was so small; but indeed it was a flaw in 
the hammer that the fore-haft was somewhat short. 

"This was their decision : that the hammer was best of 
all the precious works, and in it there was the greatest de- 
fence against the Rime-Giants; and they gave sentence, 
that the dwarf should have his wager. Then Loki offered 
to redeem his head, but the dwarf said that there was no 
chance of this. *Take me, then,' quoth Loki; but when 
Brokkr would have laid hands on him, he was a long way 
off: Loki had with him those shoes with which he ran 
through air and over water. Then the dwarf prayed Thor 
to catch him, and Thor did so. Then the dwarf would have 
hewn ofi^his head; but Loki said that he might have the 
head, but not the neck. So the dwarf took a thong and a 
knife, and would have bored a hole in Loki's lips and 
stitched his mouth together, but the knife did not cut. Then 
Brokkr said that it would be better if his brother's awl were 
there: and even as he named it, the awl was there, and 
pierced the lips. He stitched the lips together, and Loki 
ripped the thong out of the edges. That thong, with which 
Loki's mouth was sewn together, is called Vartari. 


XXXVI. " One may hear how gold is metaphorically 
called FuUa's Snood, in this verse which Ey vindr Skald^ 
Despoiler wrought: 

Fulla's shining Fillet, 
The forehead's sun at rising, 
Shone on the sweUing shield-hill 
For skalds all Hakon's life-days. 

XXXVII. "Gold is called Freyja's Tears, as was said 
before. So sang Skuli Thorsteinsson : 

Many a fearless swordsman 
Received the Tears of Freyja 
The more the morn when foemen 
We murdered; we were present. 

And as Einarr Skulason sang: 

Where, mounted 'twixt the carvings. 
The Tear of Mardoll lieth. 
We bear the axe shield-splitting. 
Swollen with Serpent's lair-gold. 

And here Einarr has further periphrased Freyja so as to call 
her Mother of Hnoss, or Wife of Odr, as standeth below : 

The shield, tempest's strong roof-ice, 
With tear-gold is unminished, 
Eye-rain of (!)dr's Bed-Mate : 
His age the King so useth. 

And again thus: 


Horn's Child, the glorious adornment, 

I own, gold- wound — a jewel 

Most fair — to the shield's rim 

Fast is the golden Sea-Flame: 

On the gem, Freyr's Niece, the tear-drift 

Of the forehead of her Mother 

She bears; the Raven-Feeder 

Gave me Frodi's seed-gold's fostering. 

It is also recorded here that one may periphrase Freyja by 
calling her Sister of Freyr. 
And thus also: 

A defence of songs full goodly 
He freely gave me, neighbor 
Of sea-scales : I praise gladly 
Njordr's Daughter's golden gem-child. 

Here she is called Daughter of Njordr. 
And again thus: 

The awesome Stately Urger 
Of Odin, he who raises 
The struggle stern, gave to me 
The courage-stalwart daughter 
Of the Vana-Bride, my fair axe; 
The valorous sword-mote's Ruler 
Led Gefn's girl to the Skald's bed. 
Set with the sea-flame's gold-work. 

Here she is called Gefn and Bride of the Vanir. — It Is 
proper to join 'tears' with all the names of Freyja, and 


to call gold by such terms ; and in divers ways these peri- 
phrases have been varied, so that gold is called Hail, or 
Rain, or Snow-Storm, or Drops, or Showers, or Water- 
falls, of Freyja's Eyes, or Cheeks, or Brows, or Eyelids. 

XXXVIII. ^^In this place one may hear that gold is called 
Word, or Voice, of Giants, as we have said before; thus 
sang Bragi the Skald: 

Then had I the third friend 

Fairly praised: the poorest 

In the Voice of the Botched-Knob's Ali, 

But best of all to me. 


He called a rock Botched Knob, and a giant Ali of Rock, 
and gold Voice of the Giant. 

XXXIX. "For what reason is gold called Otter's Wergild ? 
It is related that when certain of the i¥lsir, Odin and Loki 
and Hcenir, went forth to explore the earth, they came to 
a certain river, and proceeded along the river to a water- 
fall. And beside the fall was an otter, which had taken a 
salmon from the fall and was eating, blinking his eyes the 
while. Then Loki took up a stone and cast it at the otter, 
and struck its head. And Loki boasted in his catch, that 
he had got otter and salmon with one blow. Then they took 
up the salmon and the otter and bore them along with them, 
and coming to the buildings of a certain farm, they went in. 
Now the husbandman who dwelt there was named Hreid- 
marr : he was a man of much substance, and very skilled in 
black magic. TheiEsir asked him for a night's lodging, say- 
ing that they had sufficient food with them,and showed him 


their catch. But when Hreidmarr saw the otter, straight- 
way he called to him his sons, Fafnir and Reginn, and told 
them that the otter their brother was slain, and who had 
done that deed. 

"Now father and sons went up to the ^sir, seized them, 
bound them, and told them about the otter, how he was 
Hreidmarr's son. The ^sir offered a ransom for their lives, 
as much wealth as Hreidmarr himself desired to appoint; 
and a covenant was made between them on those terms, 
and confirmed with oaths. Then the otter was flayed, and 
Hreidmarr, taking the otter-skin, bade them fill the skin 
with red gold and also cover it altogether; and that should 
be the condition of the covenant between them. There- 
upon Odin sent Loki into the Land of the Black Elves, 
and he came to the dwarf who is called Andvari, who was 
as a fish in the water. Loki caught him in his hands and 
required of him in ransom of his life all the gold that he 
had in his rock; and when they came within the rock, the 
dwarf brought forth all the gold he had, and it was very 
much wealth. Then the dwarf quickly swept under his hand 
one little gold ring, but Loki saw it and commanded him 
to give over the ring. The dwarf prayed him not to take 
the ring from him, saying that from this ring he could 
multiply wealth for himself if he might keep it. Loki an- 
swered that he should not have one penny left, and took 
the ring from him and went out; but the dwarf declared 
that that ring should be the ruin of every one who should 
come into possession of it. Loki replied that this seemed 
well enough to him, and that this condition should hold 
good provided that he himself brought it to the ears of theiti 
that should receive the ring and the curse. He went his 
way and came to Hreidmarr*s dwelling, and showed the 


gold to Odin ; but when Odin saw the ring, it seemed fair 
to him, and he took it away from the treasure, and paid 
the gold to Hreidmarr. Then Hreidmarr filled the otter- 
skin as much as he could, and set it up when it was full. 
Next Odin went up, having the skin to cover with gold, 
and he bade Hreidmarr look whether the skin were yet 
altogether hidden. But Hreidmarr looked at it searchingly, 
and saw one of the hairs of the snout, and commanded 
that this . be covered, else their covenant should be at an 
end. Then Odin drew out the ring, and covered the hair, 
saying that they were now delivered from their debt for the 
slaying of the otter. But when Odin had taken his spear, 
and Loki his shoes, and they had no longer any need to be 
afraid, then Loki declared that the curse which Andvari 
had uttered should be fulfilled : that this ring and this gold 
should be the destruction of him who received it ; and that 
was fulfilled afterward. Now it has been told wherefore 
gold is called Otter's Wergild, or Forced Payment of the 
iEsir, or Metal of Strife. 

XL. " What more is to be said of the gold ? Hreidmarr took 
the gold for his son's wergild, but Fafnir and Reginn 
claimed some part of their brother's blood-money for them- 
selves. Hreidmarr would not grant them one penny of the 
gold. This was the wicked purpose of those brethren : they 
slew their father for the gold. Then Reginn demanded that 
Fafnir share the gold with him, half for half. Fafnir an- 
swered that there was little chance of his sharing it with 
his brother, seeing that he had slain his father for its sake; 
and he bade Reginn go hence, else he should fare even as 
Hreidmarr. Fafnir had taken the helmet which Hreidmarr 
had possessed, and set it upon his head (this helmet was 


called the Helm of Terror, of which all living creatures that 
see it are afraid), and the sword called Hrotti. Reginn had 
thaf sword which was named Refill. So he fled away, and 
Fafnir went up to Gnita Heath, and made himself a lair, 
and turned himself into a serpent, and laid him down upon 
the gold. 

"Then Reginn went to King Hjalprekr at Thjod, and 
there he became his smith; and he took into his fostering 
Sigurdr, son of Sigmundr, Volsungr's son, and of Hjor- 
dis, daughter of Eylimi. Sigurdr was most illustrious of all 
Host-Kings in race, in prowess, and in mind. Reginn 
declared to him where Fafnir lay on the gold, and incited 
him to seek the gold. Then Reginn fashioned the sword 
Gramr, which was so sharp that Sigurdr, bringing it down 
into running water, cut asunder a flock of wool which 
drifted down-stream onto the sword's edge. Next Sigurdr 
clove Reginn's anvil down to the stock with the sword. 
After that they went, Sigurdr and Reginn, to Gnita Heath, 
and there Sigurdr dug a pit in Fafnir's way and laid him- 
self in ambush therein. And when Fafnir glided toward the 
water and came above the pit, Sigurdr straightway thrust 
his sword through him, and that was his end. 

"Then Reginn came forward, saying that Sigurdr had 
slain his brother, and demanded as a condition of reconcilia- 
tion that he take Fafnir's heart and roast it with fire; and 
Reginn laid him down and drank the blood of Fafnir, and 
settled himself to sleep. But when Sigurdr was roasting the 
heart, and thought that it must be quite roasted, he touched 
it with his finger to see how hard it was; and then the juice 
ran out from the heart onto his finger, so that he was burned 
and put his finger to his mouth. As soon as the heart's 
blood came upon his tongue,straightway heknew the speech 


of birds, and he understood what the nuthatches were say- 
ing which were sitting in the trees. Then one spake : 

There sits Sigurdr 
Fafnir's heart 
With flame he roasteth: 
Wise seemed to me 
The Spoiler of Rings 
If the gleaming 
Life-fibre he ate. 

There lies Reginn — sang another — 

Rede he ponders, 

Would betray the youth 

Who trusteth in him: 

In his wrath he plots 

Wrong accusation; 

The smith of bale 

Would avenge his brother. 

Then Sigurdr went over to Reginn and slewhim,and thence 
to his horse, which was named Grani, and rode till he came 
to Fafnir's lair. He took up the gold, trussed it up in his 
saddle-bags, laid it uponGrani's back, mounted up himself, 
and then rode his ways. Now the tale is told why gold is 
called Lair or Abode of Fafnir, or Metal of Gnita Heath, 
or Grani's Burden. 

XLI. "Then Sigurdr rode on till he found a house on the 
mountain, wherein a woman in helm and birnie lay sleep- 
ing. He drew his sword and cut the birnie from her: she 


awoke then, and gave her name as Hildr : she is called Bryn- 
hildr, and was a Valkyr. Sigurdr rode away and came to 
the king who was named Gjuki, whose wife was Grim- 
hildr; their children were Gunnarr, Hogni, Gudrun, Gudn^; 
GotthormrwasGjuki's stepson. Sigurdr tarried there a long 
time, and then he obtained the hand of Gudrun, daughter 
of Gjuki, and Gunnarr and Hogni swore oaths of blood- 
brotherhood with Sigurdr. Thereafter Sigurdr and the sons 
of Gjuki went unto Atli, Budli's son, to sue for the hand 
of Brynhildr his sister in marriage to Gunnarr. Brynhildr 
abode on Hinda-Fell, and about her hall there was a flar- 
ing fire I and she had made a solemn vow to take none but 
that man who should dare to ride through the flaring fire. 

"Then Sigurdr and the sons of Gjuki (who were also 
called Niflungs) rode up onto the mountain, and Gunnarr 
should have ridden through the flaring fire : but he had the 
horse named Goti, and that horse dared not leap into the 
fire. So they exchanged shapes, Sigurdr and Gunnarr, and 
names likewise ; for Grani would go under no man but Sig- 
urdr. Then Sigurdr leapt onto Grani and rode through the 
flaring fire. That eve he was wedded with Brynhildr. But 
when they came to bed, he drew the Sword Gramr from its 
sheath and laid it between them. In the morning when he 
arose and clothed himself, he gave Brynhildr as linen-fee 
the same gold ring which Loki had taken from Andvari, 
and took another ring from her hand for remembrance. 
Then Sigurdr mounted his horse and rode to his fellows, 
and he and Gunnarr changed shapes again and went home 
to Gjuki with Brynhildr. Sigurdr and Gudrun had two 
children, Sigmundr and Svanhildr. 

"It befell on a time that Brynhildr and Gudrun went to 
the water to wash their hair. And when they came to the 


river, Brynhildr waded out from the bank well into the 
river, saying that she would not touch to her head the water 
which ran out of the hair of Gudrun, since herself had the 
more valorous husband. Then Gudrun went into the river 
after her and said that it was her right to wash her hair 
higher upstream, for the reason that she had to husband 
such a man as neither Gunnarr nor any other in the world 
matched in valor, seeing that he had slain Fafnir and Reginn 
and succeeded to the heritage of both. And Brynhildr made 
answer : * It was a matter of greater worth that Gunnarr 
rode through the flaring fire and Sigurdr durst not.' Then 
Gudrun laughed, and said: ^Dost thou think that Gun- 
narr rode through the flaring fire? Now I think that he who 
went into the bride-bed with thee was the same that gave 
me this gold ring; and the gold ring which thou bearest on 
thine hand and didst receive for linen-fee is called And- 
vari's Yield, and I believe that it was not Gunnarr who 
got that ring on Gnita Heath.' Then Brynhildr was silent, 
and went home. 

" After that she egged on Gunnarr and Hogni to slay Sig- 
urdr; but because they were Sigurdr' s sworn blood-brothers, 
they stirred up Gotthormr their brother to slay him. He 
thrust his sword through Sigurdr as he slept; but when 
Sigurdr felt the wound, he hurled his sword Gramr after 
Gotthormr, so that it cut the man asunder at the middle. 
There fell Sigurdr and Sigmundr, his son of three win- 
ters, whom they slew. Then Brynhildr stabbed herself with 
a sword, and she was burned with Sigurdr; but Gunnarr 
and Hogni took Fafnir's heritage and Andvari's Yield, and 
ruled the lands thereafter. 

" King Atli, Budli's son, and brother of Brynhildr, then 
wedded Gudrun, whom Sigurdr had had to wife ; and they 


had children. King Atli invited to him Gunnarr and Hogni, 
and they came at his invitation. Yet before they departed 
from their land, they hid the gold, Fafnir's heritage, in the 
Rhine,and that gold has never since been found. Now King 
Atli had a host in readiness, and fought with Gunnarr and 
Hogni; and they were made captive. King Atli bade the 
heart be cut out of Hogni alive, and that was his end. Gun- 
narr he caused to be cast into a den of serpents. But a harp 
was brought secretly to Gunnarr, and he struck it with his 
toes, his hands being bound; he played the harp so that all 
the serpents fell asleep, saving only one adder, which glided 
over to him and gnawed into the cartilage of his breast- 
bone so far that her head sank within the wound, and she 
clove to his liver till he died. Gunnarr and Hogni were 
called Niflungs and Gjukungs, for which reason gold is 
called Treasure, or Heritage, of the Niflungs. 

["A little while after, Gudrun slew her two sons, and j 
caused flagons to be made of their, skulls, set with gold and 
silver. Then the funeral-feast was held for the Niflungs; 
and at this feast Gudrun had mead poured into the flagons 
for King Atli, and the mead was mixed with the blood of 
the boys. Moreover, she caused their hearts to be roasted 
and set before the king, that he might eat of them. And 
when he had eaten, then she herself told him what she had 
done, with many scathing words. There was no lack of 
strong drink there, so that most of the company had fallen 
asleep where they sat. That night she went to the king while 
he slept, and Hogni's son with her; they smote the king, 
and that was the death of him. Then they set fire to the 
hall, and burned the folk that were within. After that she 
went to the shore and leaped into the sea, desiring to make 


an end of herself; but she was tossed by the billows over 
the firth, and was borne to King Jonakr's land. And when 
he saw her, he took her to him and wedded her, and they 
had three sons, called Sorli, Hamdir, and Erpr: they were 
all raven-black of hair, like Gunnarr and Hogni and the 
other Niflungs. There Svanhildr, daughter of the youth Sig- 
urdr, was reared, and of all women she was fairest. King 
Jormunrekkr the Mighty learned of her beauty, and sent 
his son Randver to woo her and bring her to be his wife. 
When Randver had come to the court of Jonakr, Svanhildr 
was given into his hands, and he should have brought her to 
King Jormunrekkr. But Earl Bikki said that it was a better 
thing for Randver towed Svandhildr, since he and she were 
both young, whereas Jormunrekkr was old. This counsel 
pleased the young folk well. Thereupon Bikki reported the 
matter to the king. Straightway, King Jormunrekkr com- 
manded that his son be seized and led to the gallows. Then 
Randver took his hawk and plucked off its feathers, and 
bade that it be sent so to his father; after which he was 
hanged. But when King Jormunrekkr saw the hawk, sud- 
denly it came home to him that even as the hawk was 
featherless and powerless to fly, so was his kingdom shorn 
of its might, since he was old and childless. Then King 
Jormunrekkr, riding out of the wood where he had been 
hunting, beheld Svanhildr as she sat washing her hair: they 
rode upon her and trod her to death under their horses' feet. 
"But when Gudrun learned of this, she urged on her 
sons to take vengeance for Svanhildr. When they were pre- 
paring for their journey, she gave them birnies and helmets 
so strong that iron could not bite into them. She laid these 
instructions upon them : that, when they were come to King 
Jormunrekkr, they should go up to him by night as he slept: 


Sorli and Hamdir should hew off his hands and feet, and 
Erpr his head. But when they were on their way, they asked 
Erpr what help they might expect from him^ if they met 
Kingjormunrekkr. He answered that he would render them 
such aid as the hand affords the foot. They said that that 
help which the foot received from the hand was altogether 
nothing. They were so wroth with their mother that she 
had sent them away with angry words, and they desired 
so eagerly to do what would seem worst to her, that they 
slew Erpr, because she loved him most of all. A little later, 
while Sorli was walking, one of his feet slipped, and he sup- 
ported himself on his hand; and he said: ^Now the hand 
assists the foot indeed; it were better now that Erpr were 
livmg.' Now when they came to King Jormunrekkr by 
night, where he was sleeping, and hewed hands and feet off 
him, he awoke and called upon his men, and bade them 
arise. And then Hamdir spake, saying : ^ The head had been 
off by now, if Erpr lived.* Then the henchmen rose up 
and attacked them, but could not overmaster them with 
weapons; and Jormunrekkr called out to them to beat them 
with stones, and it was done. There Sorli and Hamdir fell, 
and now all the house and offspring of Gjuki were dead. 
A daughter named Aslaug lived after young Sigurdr; she 
was reared with Heimir in Hlymdalir, and great houses are 
sprung from her. It is said that Sigmundr, Volsungr's son, 
was so strong that he could drink venom and receive no 
hurt; and Sinfjotli his son and Sigurdr were so hard-skinned 
that no venom from without could harm them : wherefore 
Bragi the Skald has sung thus: 

When the wriggling Serpent 

Of the Volsung's Drink hung writhing 


On the hook of the Foeman 
Of Hill-Giants' kindred. 

Most skalds have made verses and divers short tales from 
these sagas. Bragi the Old wrote of the fall of Sorli and 
Hamdir in that song of praise which he composed on Rag- 
narr Lodbrok: 

Once Jormunrekkr awakened 
To an ill dream, 'mid the princes 
Blood-stained, while swords were swirling: 
A brawl burst in the dwelling 
Of Randver's royal kinsman. 
When the raven-swarthy 
Brothers of Erpr took vengeance 
For all the bitter sorrows. 

The bloody dew of corpses. 
O'er the king's couch streaming, 
Fell on the floor where, severed. 
Feet and hands blood-dripping 
Were seen; in the ale-cups' fountain 
He fell headlong, gore-blended : 
On the Shield, Leaf of the Bushes 
Of Leifi's Land, 't is painted. 

There stood the shielded swordsmen, 

Steel biting not, surrounding 

The king's couch; and the brethren 

Hamdir and Sorli quickly 

To the earth were beaten 

By the prince's order. 


To the Bride of Odin 

With hard stones were battered. 

The swirling weapons' Urgcr 
Bade Gjuki's race be smitten 
Sore, who from life were eager 
To ravish Svanhildr's lover; 
And all pay Jonakr's ofl^pring 
With the fair-piercing weapon, 
The render of blue birnies, — 
With bitter thrusts and edges. 

• I see the heroes' slaughter 
On the fair shield-rim's surface; 
Ragnarr gave me the Ship-Moon 
With many tales marked on it.] 

XLII. "Why is gold called Prodi's Meal? This is the tale 
thereof: One of Odin's sons, named Skjoldr, — from whom 
the Skjoldungs are come, — had his abode and ruled in the 
realm which now is called Denmark, but then was known 
as Gotland. Skjoldr's son, who ruled the land after him, was 
named Fridleifr. Fridleifr's son was Frodi : he succeeded to 
the kingdom after his father, in the time when Augustus 
Caesar imposed peace on all the world; at that time Christ 
was born. But because Frodi was mightiest of all kings in 
the Northern lands, the peace was called by his name wher- 
ever the Danish tongue was spoken; and men call it the 
Peace of Frodi. No man injured any other, even though he 
met face to face his father's slayer or his brother's, loose 
or bound. Neither was there any thief nor robber then, so 
that a gold ring lay long on Jalangr's Heath. King Frodi 


went to a feast in Sweden at the court of the king who 
was called Fjolnir, and there he bought two maid-servants, * 
Fenja and Menja: they were huge and strong. In that time 
two mill-stones were found in Denmark, so great that no 
one was so strong that he could turn them : the nature of 
the mill was such that whatsoever he who turned asked 
for, was ground out by the mill-stones. This mill was called 
Grotti. He who gave King Frodi the mill was named Hen- 
gikjoptr. King Frodi had the maid-servants led to the mill, 
and bade them grind gold; and they did so. First they ground 
gold and peace and happiness for Frodi; then he would grant 
them rest or sleep no longer than the cuckoo held its peace 
or a song might be sung. It is said that they sang the song 
which is called the Lay of Grotti, and this is its beginning : 

Now are we come 
To the king's house. 
The two fore-knowing, 
Fenja and Menja: 
These are with Frodi 
Son of Fridleifr, 
The Mighty Maidens, 
As maid- thralls held. 

And before they ceased their singing, they ground out a 
host against Frodi, so that the sea-king called M^singr came 
there that same night and slew Frodi, taking much plunder. 
Then the Peace of Frodi was ended. Mysingr took Grotti 
with him, and Fenja and Menja also, and bade them grind 
salt. And at midnight they asked whether M/singrwere not 
weary of salt. He bade them grind longer. They had ground 
but a little while, when down sank the ship ; and from that 


time there has been a whirlpool in the sea where the water 
falls through the hole in the mill-stone. It was then that 
the sea became salt. 

[" The lay of Grotti : 

They to the flour-mill 

Were led, those maidens, 

And bidden tirelessly 

To turn the gray mill-stone: 

He promised to neither 

Peace nor surcease 

Till he had heard 

The handmaids' singing. 

They chanted the song 
Of the ceaseless mill-stone : 

* Lay we the bins right, 
Lift we the stones!' 
He urged the maidens 
To grind on ever. 

They sung and slung 
The whirling stone 
Till the men of Frodi 
For the most part slept; 
Then spake Menja, 
To the mill coming: 

* Wealth grind we for Frodi, 
We grind it in plenty. 


Fullness of fee 
At the mill of fortune : 
Let him sit on riches 
And sleep on down; 
Let him wake in weal: 
Then well 't is ground. 

* Here may no one 
Harm another. 
Contrive evil, 

Nor cast wiles for slaying. 
Nor slaughter any 
With sword well sharpened. 
Though his brother's slayer 
In bonds he find.' 

But he spake no word 
Save only this: 

* Sleep ye no longer 

Than the hall-cuckoo'^s silence. 
Nor longer than so. 
While one song is sung.' 

'Thou wast not, Frodi, 
Full in wisdom. 
Thou friend of men. 
When thou boughtest the maidens: 
Didst choose for strength 
And outward seeming; 
But of their kindred 
Didst not inquire. 


'Hardy was Hrungnir, 
And his father; 
Yet was Thjazi 
Than they more mighty: 
Idi and Aumir 
Of us twain are kinsmen, — 
Brothers of Hill-Giants, 
Of them were we bom. 

*Gr6tti had not come 
From the gray mountain, 
Nor the hard boulder 
From the earth's bosom. 
Nor thus would grind 
The Hill-Giants' Maiden, 
If any had known 
The news of her. 

*We nine winters 
Were playmates together. 
Mighty of stature, 
*Neath the earth's surface. 
The maids had part 
In mighty works: 
Ourselves we moved 
Mighty rocks from their place. 

'We rolled the rock 
O'er the Giants' roof-stead. 
So that the ground, 
Quaking, gave before ui; 


So slung we 
The whirling stone. 
The mighty boulder, 
Till men took it. 

*And soon after 
In Sweden's realm, 
We twain fore-knowing 
Strode to the fighting; 
Bears we hunted. 
And shields we broke; 
We strode through 
The gray-mailed spear-host. 

*We cast down a king, 
We crowned another; 
To Gotthormr good 
We gave assistance; 
No quiet was there 
Ere Knui fell. 

*This course we held 
Those years continuous. 
That we were known 
For warriors mighty; 
There with sharp spears 
Wounds we scored, 
Let blood from wounds. 
And reddened the brand. 

*Now are we come 
To the king's abode 


Of mercy bereft 

And held as bond-maids; 

Clay eats our foot-soles, 

Cold chills us above; 

We turn the Peace-Grinder: 

'T is gloomy at Fr6di*s. 

^ Hands must rest, 
The stone must halt; 
Enough have I turned, 
My toil ceases: 
Now may the hands 
Have no remission 
Till Frodi hold 
The meal ground fully. 

*The hands should hold 
The hard shafts. 
The weapons gore-stained, — 
Wake thou, Frodi! 
Wake thou, Frodi, 
If thou wouldst hearken 
To the songs of us twain 
And to ancient stories. 

*Fire I see burning 
East of the burg, 
War-tidings waken, 
A beacon of warning: 
A host shall come 
Hither, with swiftness. 


And fire the dwellings 
Above King Frodi. 

*Thou shalt not hold 
The stead of Hleidr, 
The red gold rings 
Nor the gods' holy altar; 
We grasp the handle, 
Maiden, more hardly, — 
We were not wanner 
In the wound-gore of corpses. 

*My father's maid 
Mightily ground 
For she saw the feyness 
Of men full many; 
The sturdy posts 
From the flour-box started. 
Made staunch with iron. 
Grind we yet swifter. 

* Grind we yet swifter! 
The son of Yrsa, 
Halfdanr's kinsman. 
Shall come with vengeance 
On Frodi's head: 
Him shall* men call 
Yrsa's son and brother. 
We both know that.' 

The maidens ground. 
Their might they tested. 


Young and fresh 

In giant-frenzy: 

The bin-poles trembled, 

And burst the flour-box; 

In sunder burst 

The heavy boulder. 

And the sturdy bride 
Of Hill-Giants spake : 
*We have ground, O Frodi! 
Soon we cease from grinding; 
The women have labored 
O'fcr long at the grist.' 

Thus sang Einarr Skulason: 

I have heard that Frodi's hand-maids 

Ground in the mill full gladly 

The Serpent's Couch; with gold-meal 

The king lets peace be broken: 

The fair cheeks of my axe-head, 

Fitted with maple, show forth 

Fenja's Grist; exalted 

Is the skald with the good king's riches. 

So sang Egill: 

Glad are full many men 
In Frodi's meal.] 

XLIII. "Why is gold called Kraki's Seed? In Denmark 
there was a king called Hrolfr Kraki : he was most re- 


nowned of all ancient kings for munificence, valor, and 
graciousness. One evidence of his graciousness which is 
often brought into stories is this: A little lad and poor, 
Voggr by name, came into the hall of King Hrolfr. At 
that time the king was young, and of slender stature. 
Voggr came into his presence and looked up at him ; and 
the king said : * What wouldst thou say, lad, for thou look- 
est at me?' Voggr answered: *When I was at home, I 
heard say that Hrolfr the king at Hleidr was the great- 
est man in the northern lands ; but now there sitteth in the 
high seat a little pole, and he is called King.' Then the 
king made answer : * Thou, boy, hast given me a name, so 
that I shall be called Hrolfr the Pole (Kraki); and it is the 
custom that the giving of a name be accompanied by a gift. 
Now I see that with the name which thou has fastened on 
me, thou hast no gift such as would be acceptable to me, 
wherefore he that has wherewith to give shall give to the 
other.' And he took from his hand a gold ring and gave it 
to him. Then Voggr said : * Above all kings be thou most 
blessed of givers ! Now I swear an oath that I shall be that 
man's slayer who slays thee.' Then spake the king, laugh- 
ing loudly : * Voggr is pleased with a small thing.' 

" Another example is the tale told concerning the valor 
of Hrolfr Kraki: That king whom men call Adils ruled 
over Uppsala; he had to wife Yrsa, mother of Hrolfr Kraki. 
He was at strife with the king who ruled over Norway, 
whose name was Ali ; the two joined battle on the ice of the 
lake called Vaeni. King Adils sent an embassy to Hrolfr 
Kraki, his stepson^ praying him to come to his aid, and 
promised wages to all his host so long as they should be 
away; King Hrolfr himself should have three precious 
gifts, whatsoever three he might choose from all Sweden. 


King Hrolfr could not make the journey in person, owing 
to the strife in which he was engaged with the Saxons ; but 
he sent to Adils his twelve berserks: Bodvar-Bjarki was 
there for one, and Hjalti the Stout- Hearted, Hvitserkr the 
Stern, Vottr Veseti, and the brethren Svipdagr and Bei- 
gudr. In that battle King Ali fell, and the great part of his 
host with him ; and King Adils took from him in death the 
helm Battle-Swine and his horse Raven. Then the berserks 
of Hrolfr Kraki demanded for their hire three pounds of 
gold for each man of them ; and in addition they required 
that they might bear to Hrolfr Kraki those gifts of price 
which they had chosen for him : which were the Helm Bat- 
tle-Boar and the birnie Finn's Heritage, — on neither of 
which iron would take hold, — and the gold ring which was 
called Pig of the Swedes, which Adils' forefathers had had. 
But the king denied them all these things, nor did he so 
much as pay their hire : the berserks went away ill-pleased 
with their share, and told the state of things to Hrolfr 

** Straightway he began his journey to Uppsala; and 
when he had brought his ships into the river F/ri, he rode 
at once to Uppsala, and his twelve berserks with him, all 
without safe-conduct. Yrsa, his mother, welcomed him 
and led him to lodgings, but not to the king's hall: fires 
were made there before them, and ale was given them to 
drink. Then men of King Adils came in and heaped fire- 
wood onto the fire, and made it so great that the clothes 
were burnt ofF Hrolfr and his men. And the fellows spake: 
* Is it true that Hrolfr Kraki and his berserks shun neither 
fire nor iron?' Then Hrolfr Kraki leapt up, and all they 
that were with him; and he said: 


*Add we to the fire 
In Adils' dwelling!' 

took his shield and cast it onto the fire, and leapt over the 
flames, while the shield burnt; and he spake again: 

*He flees not the flames 
Who o'er the fire leapeth!' 

Even so did his men, one after another; and they laid hands 
on those fellows who had heaped up the fire, and cast them 
into the flames. Then Yrsa came and gave Hrolfr Kraki 
a deer's horn full of gold, the ring Pig of the Swedes being 
with the gold; and she bade them ride away to the host. 
They vaulted onto their horses and rode down into the 
Plain of the F^ri; and soon they saw King Adils riding 
after them with his host all in armor, hoping to slay them. 
Then Hrolfr Kraki plunged his right hand down into the 
horn, grasped the gold, and strewed it all about the road. 
When the Swedes saw that, they leapt down out of their 
saddles, and each took up as much as he could lay hold of; 
but King Adils bade them ride on, and himself rode furi- 
ously. His horse was called Slongvir, swiftest of all horses. 
Then Hrolfr Kraki saw that King Adils was drawing close 
up to him, took the ring. Pig of the Swedes, and threw it 
toward him, and bade him receive it as a gift. King Adils 
rode at the ring and thrust at it with his spear-point, and 
let it slide down over the shaft-socket. Then Hrolfr Kraki 
turned back and saw how he bent down, and spake: *Now 
I have made him who is mightiest of Swedes stoop as a 
swine stoops.' Thus they parted. For this cause gold is 
called Seed of Kraki or of F/ri's Plain, Thus sang Ey vindr 
Skald-Despoiler : 


God of the blade of battle. 

We bear through Hakon's life-days 

The Seed of Fyri*s valley 

On our arms, where sits the falcon. 

Even as Thjodolfr sang: 

The king sows the bright seqd-com 
Of knuckle-splendid gold rings. 
With the crop of Yrsa's offspring. 
In his company's glad hand-grasp; 
The guileless Land-Director 
With Kraki's gleaming barley 
Sprinkles my arms, the flesh-grown 
Seat of the hooded falcon. 

XLI V. " It is said that the king called Holgi, from whom 
Halogaland is named, was the father of Thorgerdr Holga- 
brudr; sacrifice was made to both of them, and a cairn was 
raised over Holgi: one layer of gold or silver (that was the sac- 
rificial money), and another layer of mould and stones. 
Thus sang Skuli Thorsteinsson : 

When I reddened Reifnir's Roof-Bane, 
The ravening sword, for wealth's sake 
At Svoldr, I heaped with gold rings 
Warlike Holgi's cairn-thatch. 

In the ancient Bjarkamal many terms for gold are told : it 
says there: 

The king most gift-gracious 
His guardsmen enriched 


With Fenja's Labor, 
With Fafnir's Midgard, 
Glasir's bright Needles, 
Grani's fair Burden, 
Draupnir's dear dripping, 
Down of Grafvitnir. 

The free-handed Lord gave. 
The heroes accepted, 
SiPs firm-grown tresses. 
Ice of the bow-force. 
Otter-gild uhwilling. 
Weeping of Mardoll, 
Fire-flame of 6run, 
Idi's fine Speeches. 

The warrior rejoiced; 
We walked in fair garments. 
In Thjazi's counsels 
The people's host-countless. 
In the Rhine's red metal. 
Wrangling of Niflungs, 
The leader war-daring. 
Warded Baldr not. 

XL V. " Gold is metaphorically termed Fire of the Hand, 
or of the Limb, or of the Leg, because it is red; but silver is 
called Snow, or Ice, or Hoar-Frost, because it is white. In 
like manner, gold or silver may be periphrased in metaphors 
of purse, or crucible, or lather, and both silver and gold may 
be called Hand-Stone, or Necklace, of any man who was 


wont to have a necklace. Necklaces and rings are both sil- 
ver and gold, if no other distinction is raised. 
As Thorieikr the Fair sang: 

The kindly Prince the Load casts 
Of Crucibles on the Hawk-Seats 
Of thanes, the wrists embellished, — 
Gives Embers of the Arm- Joint. 

And as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang: 

The land-strong King of Lund 
Breaks the golden Limb-Brands; 
I think the Prince of Warriors 
Lacks not the Rhine's bright Pebbles. 

Thus sang Einarr Skulason : 

The Purse-Snow and the Sea-Fire 
Lie on both sides of the axe-head 
Blood-spilling; 't is my office 
To praise our foemen's Scather. 

And as he sang further: 

The Sea-Glow each day standeth 
O'er the Crucible's white Snow-Drift, 
And the shield, ships' cheeks protecting, 
Shelters a heart most lavish; 
Ne'er can one melt the silver 
Flagon-Snow in the Fire-Flame 
Of the Eel's Stream- Road; the Feller 
Of Hosts all feats performeth. 


Here gold is called Fire of the Eel's Stream-Road^ and 

silver. Snow of Flagons. 

Thus sang Thordr Mxri's Skald: 

The glad Giver of the Hand- Waste 
Of the Gold-Minisher perceiveth 
That the Hermodr of the Snake's Lair 
Hath had a lordly father. 

XLVI. "Man is called Breaker of Gold, even as 6ttarr 
the Swarthy sang: 

1 needs must use the Breaker 
Of the Battle-Glow of good men; 
Here is the watch war-doughty 
Of the Wise King assembled. 

I-Sender, as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang: 

The Sender of Gold permitteth 

The silent earth to hearken 

To song; his gifts I gather: 

The prince his young men gladdens. 

s Thorleikr 


Gold-Caster makes loyal to him 
His guard with kingly armor. 

Adversary, as sang Thorvaldr Blending-Skald : 

The gold's foe Hot Coals casteth 

Of the Arm; the king gives red wealth; 


The vile folk's Desolator 
Dispenseth the Freight of Grani. 

Gold-Towerer, as is written here: 

The Gold-Towerer in friendship 
I got, and of the Warrior, 
Son of the glowing War-Blade, 
I make a song of praise. 

Woman is periphrased in metaphors of gold, being called 
Willow or Giver of Gold, as Hallarsteinn sang: 

He who casts the Amber 

Of Vidblindi's Boar's cool, salt Drink, 

Long will recall the Willow 

Of the Reed-Snake's golden River. 

Here the whale is called Boar of Vidblindi ; this Vidblindi 
was a giant who drew whales out of the sea like fishes. 
The Drink of Whales is the sea; Amber of the Sea is 
gold ; woman is the Willow, or Dealer, of that gold which 
she gives; and the willow is a tree. Therefore, as is al- 
ready shown, woman is periphrased with all manner of 
feminine tree-names : she is also called User of that which 
she gives; and the word for * user' also signifies a log, the 
tree which falls in the forest. 
Thus sang Gunnlaugr Serpent's-Tongue : 

That dame was born to stir strife 
Among the sons of men- folk; 
The War-Bush caused that; madly 
I yearned to have the Wealth-Log. 


Woman is called Forest; so sang Hallarsteinn : 

With the well-trained Plane of Singing, 
The tongue, I have planed, my Lady, 
Dame of the First Song's ale-vats. 
Forest fair of Flagons. 

Fagot, as Steinn sang: 

Thou shalt, O fresh Sif-Tender 
Of the Flood's gold Fire, like other 
Fagots of Hjadnings' gravel. 
Break with thy good fortune. 

Prop, as Ormr Steinthorsson sang: 

The Prop of Stone was clothed 
In garments clean and seemly: 
A new cloak did the hero 
Cast o'er the Mead's bright Valkyr. 

Post, as Steinarr sang: 

All my dreams of the gracious Goddess 
Of the bracelet-girded soft arms 
Have lied to me; the Stream-Moon's 
Unsteadfast Prop beguiled me. 

Birch, as Ormr sang: 

For a mark of the Birch 
Of the bright hollow ring. 
The palm-flame, I laid 
On the dwarf-flagon, my song. 


Oak, even as stands here: 

The fair shaped Oak of Riches 
Stands, our mirth forestalling. 

Linden, even as is written here: 

O dreadful, towering Elm-Tree 
Of the dinning shower of weapons. 
Our courage shall not lessen: 
So bade the Linen's Linden. 

Man is periphrased in tree-metaphors, as we have written 
before ; he is called Rowan, or Tester, of Weapons, or of 
Combats, of Expeditions and of Deeds, of Ships, and of 
all that which he wields and tests; thus sang Clfr Uggason : 

But the flashing-eyed stiff Edge-Rope 
Of the Earth stared past the gunwale 
At the Rowan-Tree of the people 
Of Stone, the Giant-Tester, 

Tree and Beam, as Kormakr sang: 

The Beam of the murdering Sword-Twig 
Is taller than are many 
In the Din of Darts; the sword wins 
The land for dauntless Sigurdr. 

Grove, as sang Hallfredr Troublous-Skald: 

The Mighty Grove and Faithful 
Of the Shield-Murderer, budded 


With hair, stands in the Eastiands 
Safe with UUr's Ash- Warriors. 

Here he is also called Ash. 
Box, as Arnorr sang: 

The Box of Ships bade the Rygir 
Bring the shields together 
At early dusk; through the spear-rain 
Of strife-clouds held the autumn night. 

Ash, as Refr sang: 

The Strife-Lord, gracious Giver, 
Sought the Maid's bed gold-sprinkled; 
The Ash of Odin's War-Sleet 
Won the estate of manhood. 

Maple, as here: 

* Hail, Maple of the Ice-Lumps 
Of the Hand ! ' So spake the Birnie. 

Tree, as Refr sang: 

Since I have appointed 

To proffer Odin's Breast-Sea, 

The War-God's Verse, to Thorsteinn; 

The Tree of Swords so wills it. 

Staff, as Ottarr sang: 

Thou, fierce War-StafF, maintainedst 
Maugre two kings, thy borders 


With heroes' kin, where the ravens 
Starved not; keen-hearted art thou. 

Thorn, as Arnorr sang: 

He gathered, the young Wealth-Thorn, 
Many great heaps of corpses 
For the eagles, and his henchmen 
Guided and helped the hero. 

XLVn. " How should battle be periphrased ? By calling 
it Storm of Weapons or of Sheltering Shields, or of Odin 
or the Valkyrs, or of Host- Kings; and Din and Clashing. 
Thus sang Hornklofi: 

The king hath held a Spear-Storm 
With heroes, where the eagles 
Screamed at the Din of Skogul; 
The red wounds spat out blood. 

Thus sang Eyvindr: 

And that hero 

At Haar's Tempest 

Wore a sark 

Of gray wolf-skin. 

Thus sang Bersi: 

In earlier days I seemed not 
To Gunn's War-Bushes useful 
In the Sleet of Hlokk, when younger 
We were: so 't is said. 


Thus sang Etnarr: 

The stark prince lets Hildr's Shield-Sails 
Take the sternest crashing Storm-Wind 
Of the Valkyr, where hail of bow-strings 
Drives; the sword-blade hammers. 

As Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang: 

The mail-sarks of the warriors, 
Firm-woven, did not shelter 
The seemly youths 'gainst Hogni's 
Showers of Hakon's onset. 

Even as here: 

They set the Point-Net's edge-band 
Against the Point- Crash-Urger. 

And again: 

'Neath eagles' claws the king's foes 
Sank at the Clash of Gondul. 

XL VIII. "Weapons and armor should beperiphrasedin fig- 
ures of battle, and with reference to Odin and the Valkyrs 
and host-kings: one should call a helmet Cowl, or Hood; 
a birnie, Sark, or Kirtle; a shield. Tent; and'a shield-wall 
is termed Hall and Roof, Wall and Floor. Shields, peri- 
phrased in figures of warships, are called Sun, or Moon, or 
Leaf, or Sheen, or Garth, of the Ship; the shield is also 
called Ship of Ullr, or periphrased in terms of Hrungnir's 
feet, since he stood upon his shield. On ancient shields it 


was customary to paint a circle, which was called the * ring/ 
and shields are called in metaphors of that ring. Hewing 
weapons, axes or swords, are called Fires of Blood, or of 
Wounds; swords are called Odin's Fires; but men call axes 
by the names of troll-women, and periphrase them in terms 
of blood or wounds or a forest or wood. Thrusting weapons 
are properly periphrased by calling them by names of ser- 
pents or fishes. Missile weapons are often metaphorically 
termed hail or sleet or storm. Variants of all these figures 
have been made in many ways, for they are used chiefly 
in poems of praise, where there is need of such metaphors. 
So sang Viga-Glumr: 

With the Hanged-God's helmet 
The hosts have ceased from going 
By the brink; not pleasant 
The bravest held the venture. 

Thus sang Einarr Tinkling-Scale : 

Helm- folded strife-bold Bui, — 
Who from the south went forth 
Into Gunn's Crash, — and din-swift 
Sigvaldi offered battle. 

Sark of Rodi, as Tindr sang: 

When came the birnied Hakon 
To cast away the ring-rent 
Streaming Sark of Odin, 
Rodi's rocking sea-steeds were cleared. 


Hamdir's Kirtle, as Hallfredr sang: 

The war-sleet hard and streaming 
Of Egill's weapons breaketh 
Fiercely on Hamdir's ICirtles 
Of the foremost wave-deer's warriors. 

iarments, as he sang further: 

Thence the bright Weeds of Sorli 
In men's blood must be reddened; 
I hear it clearly : Wound-Fire 
In cutting showers of iron. 

called Tents of Hlokk, as Grettir sang: 

Hlokk's Tent-Raisers held their noses 
Together, and the heroes 
Of the Rain-Storm of Hildr-s Shield-Wall 
Hewed at each other's beards. 

.oof, as Einarr sang: 

Rddi's Roof's great Ice-Lump 
For the Rain of Frcyja's Eyelids 
Grows not less, my fair axe-head; 
His age my lord so useth. 

^ Hildr, as Grettir sang, and as we have 

the sea Olafr's Kinsman 
Reddens the flame of the Ship-Sun. 


Moon of the Ship's Cheek, as Refr sang: 

Fair was the day, when Scatterers 
Of Arm-Fire thrust the clear Moon 
Of the Cheek into my hand-clasp, 
The coiling track of red rings. 

Ship's Garth, as here: 

The swift Sweller of the Spear-Crash 
Shot through the stain-dyed Prow-Garth 
As it were birch-bark; truly 
He was a bitter battler. 

Ash of UUr, as here : 

The Snow-Gusts of Ullr's Ash-Ship 
Grimly o'er our Prince shoot 
With fullness, where are tossing 
The fearsome covered spike-spars. 

Blade of Hrungnir's Foot-Soles, as Bragi sang: 

Wilt hear, O Hrafnketill, 
How I shall praise the Sole-Blade 
Of Thrudr's thief, stain-covered 
With skill, and praise my king. 

Bragi the Skald sang this concerning the ring on the shield : 

Unless it be, that Sigurdr's 
Renowned Son would have payment 
In good kind for the ring-nave 
Of the Ringing Wheel of Hildr. 


He called the shield Wheel of Hildr, and the ring the Nave 

of the Wheel. 

Ring-Earth, as Hallvardr sang: 

The Chief of ranks of Combat 
Sees the red-gleaming Ring-Earth 
Fly in two parts; the white disk, 
The pictured, bursts in sunder. 

It is also sung: 

A ring befits the shield best; 
Arrows befit the bow. 

A sword is Odin's Fire, as Kormakr sang: 

The fight swelled, when the Warrior, 
The Wolf's blithe Feeder, in tumult 
Fared with Odin's ringing Fire-Flame; 
Urdr came forth from the Well. 

Fire of the Helm, as tllfr Uggason sang: 

The very mighty Maiden 

Of the Mountain made the Sea-Horse 

Roll forward, but the Champions 

Of Odin's Helm-Fire felled her Wolf-Steed. 

Fire of the Birnie, as Glumr Geirason sang: 

At that the Land-Protector 
Let the Birnie's Streaming Fire whine. 
Hone-whetted, he who warded 
Him strongly 'gainst the warriors. 


Ice of the Rim, and Hurt of Sheltering Weapons, as Einarr 


I received the Ice of Red Rims, 
With Freyja's golden Eye-Thaw, 
From the upright prince high-hearted; 
We bear in hand the Helm's Hurt. 

An axe is called Troll- Woman of Sheltering Weapons, as 
Einarr sang: 

Raefiirs Sea-Steed's Riders 
May see how, richly carven. 
The dragons close are brooding 
'Gainst the brow of the Helm-Ogress. 

A spear is called Serpent, as Refr sang: 

My angry Murky Serpent 

Of the markings of the Shield-Board 

Savagely doth sport, in 

My palms, where men in strife meet. 

Arrows are called Hail of the Bow or Bowstring, or of the 
Shelters, or of Battle, as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang : 

The hammering King of Swords shook 
From the Sails of Hlokk the Bow-Hail: 
Bravely the Wolf's Supporter 
Warded his life in battle. 

And Hallfredr: 

And the armor of the Spear-Sleet, 
Knitted with iron, saved not 


The saters of hungry ravens 

From the Shaft-Hail of the Bowstring. 

And Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler: 

They said, O Hords' Land- Warder, 
Thy spirit little faltered, 
When the Birnie's Hail in the wound burst; 
Bent were the stringed elm-bows. 

XLIX. " Battle is called Storm or Snow-Shower of the 
Hjadnings, and weapons are termed Fire or Wands of 
Hjadnings ; and this is the tale thereof: that king who was 
called Hogni had a daughter named Hildr: her King He- 
dinn, son of Hjarrandi, took as the spoils of war, while 
King Hogni attended an assembly of kings. But when he 
learned that there had been raiding in his realm and his 
daughter had been borne off, he departed with his host to 
seek Hedinn, and heard tidings of him, that he was pro- 
ceeding northward along the land. When Hogni had come 
into Norway, he learned that Hedinn had sailed westward 
over the sea. Then Hogni sailed after him, even to the 
Orkneys; and when he landed at the place called Hoy, 
Hedinn was already there before him with his host. Then 
Hildr went to meet her father, and offered him a necklace 
on Hedinn'^s behalf, for reconciliation and peace; but if it 
were not accepted, she said, Hedinn was ready to fight, 
and Hogni might hope for no mercy at his hands. 

^^ Hogni answered his daughter harshly; and when she 
returned to Hedinn, she told him that Hogni desired no 
reconciliation, and she bade him make ready for battle. So 
did both parties: they went to the island and marshalled 


their hosts. Then Hedinn called to Hogni his father-in- 
law, offering him reconciliation and much gold in com- 
pensation. But Hogni answered: ^Thou hast made this 
offer over-late, if thou wouldst make peace: for now I 
have drawn Dainsleif, which the dwarves made, and which 
must cause a man's death every time it is bared, nor ever 
fails in its stroke; moreover, the wound heals not if one 
be scratched with it.* Then said Hedinn : * Thou dost boast 
in the sword, but not in the victory ; I call any sword good 
which is faithful to its lord.' Then they began that famous 
battle which is called the Hjadnings' Strife, and they fought 
all that day, but at evening the kings went to their ships. 
Now Hildr went to the slain by night, and with magic quick- 
ened all those that were dead. The next day the kings went 
to the battlefield and fought, and so did all those that had 
fallen on the day before. So the fight went one day after 
the other: all who fell, and all those weapons which lay 
on the field, and the shields also, were turned to stone; but 
when day dawned, up rose all the dead men and fought, 
and all weapons were renewed. It is said in songs that in 
this fashion the Hjadnings shall continue unto the Weird 
of the Gods. Bragi the Skald composed verses after this 
tale in Ragnarr Lodbrok's Song of Praise: 

And the beloved Maiden 
Of the veins' blood-letting 
Purposed to bring, for wrath's sake. 
The bow-storm to her father: 
When the ring-wearing lady. 
The woman full of evil. 
Bore the neck-ring of War-Doom 
To the Battler of the Wind's Steeds. 


That gory Wound-Amender 
To the glorious Monarch offered 
The necklace not for fear's sake, 
At the mote of fatal weapons : 
Ever as restraining battle 
She seemed, although she goaded 
Warriors to walk the death-road 
With the ravening Wolf's dire Sister. 

The Prince of Folk, the Land-God, 
Let not the fight, wolf-gladdening. 
Halt, nor slaughter on the sands cease,- 
Hate, deadly, swelled in Hogni, 
When the stern Lords of Sword-Din 
Sought Hedinn with stern weapons. 
Rather than receive 
The necklet-rings of Hildr. 

And that baleful Witch of Women, 
Wasting the fruits of victory, 
Took governance on the island 
O'er the axe, the Birnie's Ruin; 
All the Ship-King's war-host 
Went wrathful 'neath the firm shields 
Of Hjarrandi, swift-marching 
From Reifnir's fleet sea-horses. 

On the fair shield of Svolnir 
One may perceive the onslaught; 
Ragnarr* gave me the Ship-Moon, 
With many tales marked on it. 

* See page i6i. 


Battle is called Storm of Odin, as is recorded above; so 
sang Viga-Glumr: 

I cleared my way aforetime 
Like earls to lands; the word went 
Of this among the Storm-Staves, 
The men of Vidrir's Sword- Wand. 

Here battle is called Storm of Vidrir, and the sword is the 
Wand of Battle ; men are Staves of the Sword. Here, then, 
both battle and weapons are used to make metaphors for 
man. It is called ^inlaying,' when one writes thus. 

*'The shield is the Land of Weapons, and weapons arc 
Hail or Rain of that land, if one employs figures of later 

L. ^^ How should the ship be periphrased ? Call it Horse or 
Deer or Snowshoe of the Sea-King, or of Ship's Rigging, 
or of Storm. Steed of the Billow, as Hornklofi sang: 

The Counsel-Stern Destroyer 
Of the pale Steed of the Billow 
When full young let the ships' prows 
Press on the sea at flood-tide. 

Geitir's Steed, as Erringar-Steinn sang: 

But though to the skald all people 
This strife from the south are telling. 
We shall yet load Geitir's Sea-Steed 
With stone; we voyage gladly. 


Sveidi's Reindeer: 

O Son of Sveinn strife-valiant, 
Thou comest with Sveidi's Reindeer, 
Long of seam, on the Seat of Solsi; 
The Sound-Deer from land glided. 

So sang Hallvardr. Here the ship is also called Deer of the 
Sound; and the Sea is called Solsi's Seat. 
Thus sang Thordr Sjareksson: 

The swift Steed of the Gunwale 

Around Sigg veered from northward, 

The gust shoved Gylfi's Stream's Mirth, 

The Gull's Wake-Horse, to southward 

Of Aumar, laying fleetly 

Both Kormt and Agdir's coastline 

Along the stern; by Listi 

The Leek's Steed lightly bounded. 

Here the ship is called Steed of the Gunwale; and the sea 
is Gylfi's Land ; the sea is also called Gull's Wake. The 
ship is called Horse, and further, Horse of the Leek: for 
Meek' means 'mast.' 
And again, as Markus sang: 

The Stream's Winterling waded 

Stoutly the Firth-Snake's Snow-Heaps; 

The Tusker of the Mast-Head 

Leaped o'er the Whale's spumed House-Tops; 

The Bear of the Flood strode forward 

On the ancient paths of sea-ships; 



The Stay's Bear, shower-breasting, 
Broke the Reef's splashing Fetter. 

Here the ship is called Winterling of the Stream : a bear- 
cub is called a Winterling; and a bear is called Tusker; 
the Bear of the Stay is a ship. 

The ship is also called Reindeer, and so Hallvardr sang, 
as we have written before ; and Hart, as King Haraldr Sig- 
urdarson sang: 

By Sicily then widely 

The Seam cut: we were stately; 

The Sea-Hart glided swiftly 

As we hoped beneath the heroes. 

And Elk, as Einarr sang: 

The ring's mild Peace-Dispenser, 
The princely hero, may not 
Long bide with thee, if something 
Aid not; we boune the Flood's Elk. 

And Otter, as Mani sang: 

What, laggard carle with gray cheeks, 
Canst do among keen warriors 
On the Otter of the Sea- Waves? 
For thy strength is ebbing from thee. 

Wolf, as Refr sang: 

And the Hoard-Diminisher hearkened 
To Thorsteinn; true my heart is 


To the Lord of the Wolf of Billows 
In the baleful Wrath-Wand's conflict. 

And Ox also. The ship is called Snowshoe, or Wagon, or 
Wain. Thus sang Eyjolfr the Valiant Skald: 

Late in the day the young Earl 
In the Snowshoe of Landless Waters 
Fared with equal following 
To meet the fearless chieftain. 

Thus sang Styrkarr Oddason : 

Hogni's host drove the Wagons 
Of Rollers o'er Heiti's Snow-Heaps, 
Angrily pursuing 
The great Giver of Flood-Embers. 

And as Thorbjorn sang: 

The Freighter of Wave-Crests' Sea- Wain 
Was in the font of christening, 
Hoard-Scatterer, who was given 
The White Christ's highest favor. 

LI. "How should one periphrase Christ? Thus: by call- 
ing Him Fashioner of Heaven and Earth, of Angels, and 
of the Sun ; Governor of the World and of the Heavenly 
Kingdom and of Jerusalem and Jordan and the Land of 
the Greeks ; Counsellor of the Apostles and of the Saints. 
Ancient skalds have written of Him in metaphors of 
Urdr's Well and Rome; as Eilifr Gudrunarson sang: 



So has Rome's Mighty Ruler 
In the Rocky Realms confirmed 
His power; they say He sitteth 
South, at the Well of Urdr. 

Thus sang Skapti Thoroddsson: 

The King of Monks is greatest 
Of might, for God all governs j 
Christ's power wrought this earth all, 
And raised the Hall of Rome. 

King of the Heavens, as Markus sang: 

The King of the Wind-House fashioned 
Earth, sky, and faithful peoples; 
Christ, sole Prince of Mortals, 
Hath power o'er all that liveth. 

Thus sang Eilifr Kulnasveinn: 

The Host of the beaming World's Roof 
And the Band of Illustrious bow down 
To the Holy Cross; than all glory 
Else the Sole Sun's King is brighter. 

Son of Mary, as Eilifr sang further: 

The bright Host of Heaven boweth 
To Mary's Bairn: He winneth, 
The Gentle Prince, of glory 
The true might, God and man both. 



King of Angels, as Eilifr sang again : 

The goodly might of God's friend 
Is better than men guess of; 
Yet the Gracious King of Angels 
Is dearer than all, and holier. 

King of Jordan, as Sigvatr sang: 

Four angels the King of Jordan 
Sent long ago through aether 
To earthward; and the stream washed 
The holy head of the World's Lord. 

King of Greeks, as Arnorr sang: 

I have lodged for the hero's ashes 
Prayers with the Lordly Warder 
Of Greeks and men of Gardar: 
Thus I pay my Prince for good gifts. 

Thus sang Eilifr Kulnasveinn : 

The Glory of Heaven praises 

Man's Prince: He is King of all things. 

Here he called Christ, first. King of Men, and again. King 
of All. Einarr Skulason sang: 

He who compasseth. Bright in Mercy, 
All the world, and gently careth 
For all, caused the realm of Heaven 
To ope for the valiant ruler. 


LII. "There the metaphors coincide; and he who interprets 
the language of poesy learns to distinguish which king is 
meant; for it is correct to call the Emperor of Constanti- 
nople King of Greeks, and similarly to call the king who 
rules over the land of Jerusalem King of Jerusalem, and 
also to call the Emperor of Rome King of Rome, and to 
call him King of Angles ' who governs England. But that 
periphrasis which was cited but now, which called Christ 
King of Men, may be had by every king. It is proper to 
periphrase all kings by calling them Land-Rulers, or Land- 
Warders, or Land-Attackers, or Leader of Henchmen, or 
Warder of the People. 
Thus sang Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler : 

Who filled the ravens 
From life was reft 
By the Earth- Rulers 
At Oglo." 

And as Glumr Geirason sang: 

The Prince beneath the helmet 
Reddened the sword hone-hollowed 
On the Geats: there the Land- Warder 
Was found in the grinding spear-din. 

As Thjodolfr sang: 

'T is my wish that the glorious Leader 
Of Henchmen, the Glad-hearted, 
Should leave his sons the heritage 
And the sod of his fair freehold. 

' The reverse of Gregory's pun : "Non Angli sed angeli." * See page 98. 


As Einarr sang: 

The valiant-souled Earth-Warder 
On his stern head the helm bears; 
The bard before heroes telleth 
The fame of the King of Hordland. 

It is right also to call him King of Kings, under whom are 
tributary kings. An emperor is highest of kings, and next 
under him is that king who reigns over a nation ; and each 
of these is equal to the other in the periphrases made of 
them in poesy. Next to them are those men who are called 
earls or tributary kings: and they are equal in periphrasis 
with a king, save that one may not term them kings of 
nations. And thus sang Arnorr Earl's Skald concerning 
Earl Thorfinnr: 

Let the men hear how the Earl's King, 
Hardy of mind, the sea sought : 
The overwhelming Ruler 
Failed not to thwart the ocean. 

Next to these in the figures of poesy are those men who 
are called chiefs : one may periphrase them as one might a 
king or an earl, calling them Dispensers of Gold, Wealth- 
Munificent, Men of the Standards, and Captains of the 
Host, or Van-Leaders of the Array or of Battle ; since each 
king of a nation, who rules over many lands, appoints trib- 
utary kings and earls in joint authority with himself, to 
administer the laws of the land and defend it from attack 
in those parts which lie far removed from the king. And in 
those parts they shall be equal with the king's self in giving 


judgment and meting punishment. Now there are many 
districts in one land ; and it is the practice of kings to ap- 
point justiciars over as many districts as one chooses to give 
into their hands. These justiciars are called chiefs or landed* 
men in the Danish tongue, reeves in Saxony, and barons 
in England. They are also to be righteous judges and faith- 
ful warriors over the land which is entrusted to them for 
governance. If the king is not near, then a standard shall 
be borne before them in battle; and then they are quite as 
lawful war-captains as kings or earls. 

" Next under them are those men who are called frank- 
lins : they are those freeholders who are of honorable kin- 
dred, and possessed of full rights. One may periphrase them 
by calling them Wealth-Givers, and Protectors, and Re- 
concilers of Men ; headmen also may have these titles. 

*' Kings and earls have as their following the men called 
henchmen and house-carles; landed-men also have in their 
service those who are called henchmen in Denmark and 
Sweden, and house-carles in Norway, and these men swear 
oaths of service to them, even as henchmen do to kings. 
The house-carles of kings were often called henchmen in 
the old heathen time. 
Thus sang Thorvaldr Blending Skald: 

Hail, King, swift in the onset! 
And thy sturdy house-carles with thee! 
In their mouths men have my verses, 
Made for a song of praising. 

King Haraldr Sigurdarson composed this: 

The man full mighty waiteth 
The filling of the King's seat; 


Oft, I find, to the Earl's heels 
Throngs my host of house-carles. 

Henchmen and house-carles may be periphrased by call- 
ing them House-Guard, or Wage-Band, or Men of Honor: 
thus sang Sigvatr: 

I learned the Warrior's Wage-Band 
On the water fought that battle 
Newly: 't is not the smallest 
Snow-shower of Shields I tell of. 

And thus also: 

When on the Steed of Cables 

The clashing steel was meeting, 

'T was not as when a maid bears 

The Chief's mead to the Honor- Winners. 

The service-fee which headmen give is called wages and 
gifts } thus sang Ottarr the Swarthy: 

I needs must use the Breaker 
Of the Battle-Glow of good men; 
Here is the watch war-doughty 
Of the Wise King assembled.' 

Earls and chiefs and henchmen are periphrased by calling 
them Counsellors or Speech-Friends or Seat-Mates of the 
King, as Hallfredr sang: 

' Sec page 176. 


The Counsellor battle-mighty 
Of the Prince, whom boldness pleases, 
Lets the feud-fiery weeds of Hogni, 
Hammer-beaten, clash upon him. 

As Snaebjorn sang: 

The Speech-Friend of Kings letteth 
The long-hulled steer-rope's Race-Horse 
Steady the swordlike steel beak 
Of the ship against the stern wave. 

Thus sang Arnorr: 

My young sons do bear for my sake 
Grave sorrow for the slaughter 
Of the Earl, destroyed by murder. 
The Bench-Mate of our Monarch. 

King's Counsel-Friend, as Hallfredr sang: 

In council 't was determined 
That the King's Friend, wise in counsel, 
Should wed the Land, sole Daughter 
Of Onarr, greenly wooded.' 

One should periphrase men by their kindred; as Kormakr 


Let the son of Haraldr's true friend 
Give ear, and hearken to me: 
I raise my song, the Yeast-Stream 
Of Syr's snow-covered Monsters. 

' See page 136. 


He called the Earl True Friend of the King, and Hakon, 
Son of Earl Sigurdr. And Thjodolfr sang thus concerning 

About Olafr's sire 
Waxed the steel-knife-storm's ire, 
That of wightness each deed 
Is worthy fame*s meed. 

And again: 

Jarizleifr could espy 
Where the king passed by: 
The brave, sainted lord's kin 
Stoutly praise did win. 

And again he sang: 

Breath-bereft is he 
Who o'er all bore the gree, — 
Of chiefs kinsman mild, 
Haraldr's brother's child. 

Arnorr also sang thus in Rognvaldr*s Song of Praise 

Heiti's war-good kinsman 
Made wedlock-kindred with me: 
The earl's strong tie of marriage 
Made honor to us rendered. 

And again, concerning Earl Thorfinnr, he sang: 

The thin-made swords bit keenly 
Old Rognvaldr's kin, to southward 


Of Man, where rushed the strong hosts 
Under the sheltering shield-rims. 

And he sang further: 

God, guard the glorious 
Kin-Betterer of great Turf-Einarr 
From harm^ I pray, show mercy 
To him whom faithful chiefs love. 

And Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang: 

The House-Prop of the Kindred 
Of Hilditonn shall not lack 
Hardihood more munificent; 

1 am bound to maintain praises. 

LHL "How are the uninvolved terms of poesy made? 
By calling each thing by its proper name. What are the 
simple terms for poesy? It is called Poetry, Glorifying, 
Song, Laud, and Praise. Bragi the Old sang this, when he 
was travelling through a forest late at evening: a troll- 
woman hailed him in verse, asking who passed: 

'Trolls do call me 
Moon's . . . 
... of the giant, 
Storm-sun's (?) bale, 
Fellow-in-misery of the sibyl. 
Warder of the circled ring-earth, 
Wheel-devourer of the heaven. 
What is the troll but that?" 

I «ft 

Era trbU-kenniDgar, tninar mytkar/* Jotton, pu 403. 


He answered thus: 

^Skalds do call me 
Vidurr's Shape-Smith, 
Gautr's Gift-Finder, 
Bard not faulty, 
Yggr's Ale-Bearer, 
Song's Arrayer, 
Skilled Smith of Verse: 
What is the Skald but this?' 

And as Kormakr sang: 

I make more Glorifying 

By far o'er Hakon's great son: 

I pay him the song-atonement 

Of the gods. In his wain Thor sitteth. 

And as Thordr Kolbeinsson sang: 

The Shield-Maple let many swift ships 
And merchant-craft, and speedy 
War-boats o'er the sea pour; 
The skald's ready Song of Laud waxed. 

Laud, as tJlfr Uggason sang: 

Now the stream to the sea cometh; 
But first the Laud I sang forth 
Of the Messenger of Sword-Rain: 
Thus I raise the praise of warriors. 

Here poesy is called praise also. 


LIV. "How are the gods named? They are called Fetters, 
as Eyjolfr the Valiant Skald sang: 

Einkr draws the lands beneath him 
At the pleasure of the Fetters, 
And fashions the Spear-Battle. 

And Bonds, as Thjodolfr of Hvin sang: 

The skilful God-Deceiver 
To the Bonds proved a stern sharer 
Of bones: the Helmet-Hooded 
Saw somewhat hindered seething.' 

Powers, as Einarr Tinkling-Scale sang: 

I say, the Mighty Powers 
Magnify Hakon's empire. 

Jolnar," as Eyvindr sang: 

We have fashioned 
The Feast of Jolnar, 
The Prince's praise-song. 
Strong as a stone bridge. 

Deities,' as Kormakr sang: 

' See page 130. 

' This word, in the singular, is one of the names of Odin. I can find no ety- 
mology for it. 

' A rare and doubtful word. According to Cl.-Vig., the word occurs only 
twice ; Yngl, S^ ch.ii, and here. Cl.-Vig. holds that the word probably means 
priests : ** The diar of the Tngl, S, were probably analogous to the Icel. godif 
from god (JeusY* (p. lOo). 


The Giver of Lands, who bindeth 
The sail to the top, with gold-lace 
Honors him who pours Deities' verse-mead; 
Odin wrought charms on Rindr.* 

LV. *' These names of the heavens are recorded (but we 
have not found all these terms in poems ; and thesip skaldic 
terms, even as others, are not meet for use in skaldic writ- 
ing, methinks, unless one first find such names in the works 
of Chief Skalds): Heaven, Hl/rnir, Heidthornir, Storm- 
Mfmir, Long-Lying, Light-Farer, Driving, Topmost Sky, 
Wide-Fathom, Vet-Mimir, Lightning, Destroyer, Wide- 
Blue. The solar planet is called Sun, Glory, Ever-Glow, 
All-Bright, Sight, Fair Wheel, Healing Ray, Dvalinn's 
Playmate, Elfin-Beam, Doubtful-Beam, Luminary. The 
lunar planet is called Moon, Waxer, Waner, Year-Teller, 
Mock-Sun, Fengari,* Glamour, Haster, Crescent, Glare. 

LVL "Which are the simple terms for Earth? She is called 
Earth, as Thjodolfr sang: 

The hardy Point-Rain's Urger 
Oft caused the harsh sword-shower. 
Ere under him the broad Earth 
With battle he subjected. 

Field, as Ottarr sang: 

The Prince guards the Field: 
Few kings are so mighty; 

* See page lOO. 

2 "Byzant. <f>€yydpi; an Air. Xe7." (Cl.-Vig.,p. 151). 


Oleifr fattens the eagle, — 
Foremost is the Swedes* King. 

Ground, as Hallvardr sang: 

The broad Ground, 'neath the venom-cold Adder 

Bound, lies subject to the Warrior 

Of the Island-Fetter's heaped gold; 

The Hone-Land's Lord the hoard dispenseth. 

Haudr,' as Einarr sang: 

Brave heroes are defending 
The hard Haudr of famous princes 
With the sword; oft splits the helmet 
Before the furious edge-storm. 

Land, as Thordr Kolbeinsson sang: 

The Land, after the battle, 
Was laid low from Veiga northward 
To Agdir south, or farther: 
Hard is song in conflict. 

Fief, as Ottarr sang: 

Thou, fierce War-Staff, maintainedst 
The Fief despite two Monarchs 
With heroes' kin, where the ravens 
Starved not; keen-hearted art thou.* 

* "Etymology not known" (Cl.-Vig., p. 241). 
' See pages 180, 181. 


Hlodyn/ as Volu-^teinn sang: 

I remember how murky earth yawned 
With graven mouth for the Sender 
Of the Gold- Words of the Giant 
Of the hard bones of Green Hlodyn. 

Country, as Clfr Uggason sang: 

But the flashing-eyed stiff Edge-Rope 
Of the Earth stared past the gunwale 
At the Rowan-Tree of the Country 
Of Stone, the Giant-Tester." 

Fjorgyn,' as is said here : 

I was faithful to the free Payer 

Of the stream-bed of Fjorgyn's Serpent; 

May honor be closely guarded 

By the Giver of the Giant's Stream-gold. 

LVII. '* It is correct to periphrase blood or carrion in terms 
of the beast which is called Strangler,^ by calling them 
his Meat and Drink ; it is not correct to express them in 
terms of other beasts. The Strangler is also called Wolf. 
As Thjodolfr sang: 

Enough guesting to the Ravener 
Was given, when the Son of Sigurdr 

' A persooification. ' See page 179. 

s Cf. Goth, /airguni {= ti mountain) and A,-S, /yrgen, A personification: 

Fjorgynn it father of Frigg and of Jord (Earth). 

* ^tfr^l cf. A.-S, weargf Ger. -wurgen. 


Came from the North, the Wolf 
To lure from the wood to the wound. 

Here he b called Ravener also. 
Greedy One, as Egill sang: 

The Greedy One gashed 
Grisly wounds, when plashed 
The red Point-Creek 
On the raven's beak. 

Witch-Beast, as Einarr sang: 

The Gotha, cold with venom. 
With hot Wound-Gush was reddened; 
The Witch-Beast's warm drink, mingled 
With the water, in the sea poured. 

She- Wolf, as Amorr sang: 

The She-Wolfs evil Kindred 
Swallowed the corpse, harm-swollen. 
When the green sea was turned 
To red, with gore commingled. 

Strangler, as lUugi sang: 

There was happiness for the Strangler 
When my lord pursued hosts full many; 
With the sword the Necklet-Minisher 
Pierced the swart Snake of the Forest. 


Thus sang Hallr: 

He sated the Heath-Beasts' Hunger: 

The hoar howler in wounds gladdened; 

The king reddened the Wild One's mouth-hairs, — 

The Wolf went to drink of the wound. 

And again, as Thordr sang: 

In blood Gjalp's Stud-Horse waded, 
The dusty pack got fullness 
Of the Greedy One's Wheat; the howler 
Enjoyed the Ravener's Gore-Drink. 

The bear is called Wide-Stepper, Cub, Winterling, Ourse, 
Gib-Cat, Tusker, Youngling, Roarer, Jolfudr,' Wilful- 
Sharp, She- Bear, Horse-Chaser, Scratcher, Hungry One, 
Blomr,' Bustler. The hart is called Modrodnir,* Dalarr,* 
Dalr,' Dainn,* Dvalinn,* Duneyrr,* Durathror/ These are 
the names of horses enumerated in the Rhymes of Thor- 
grimr : ' 

Hrafn* and Sleipnir, 

The famous horses; 

Valr ^ and Lettfeti ; 

Tjaldari ' was there too; 

Gulltopr and Goti;' 

I heard Soti " told of; 

Mor " and Lungr " with Marr." 

' Meaoiog? * Angry-minded ? ^ Meaning? 

* These are the names of the harts that feed on the leaves of the Ash Ygg- 

drasill. See Gyifag.j ch. xvi. 

' For meanings not given in footnotes, see Gylfag., ch. xv, and SkaiJs,^ ch. xvii. 

6 Raven. ' Hawk. » Racer? (Cl.-Vig., p. 635). ' ? 

" Soot-Colored. Dark-Gray. " ? " Steed. 


Vigg ' and Stufr ' 

Were with Skaevadr;^ 

Blakkr * could well bear Thegn ; 

Silfrtoppr and Sinir;^ 

I heard Fakr * spoke of; 

Gullfaxi and Jor ' with the Gods were. 

Blodughofi' hight a horse 

That they said beareth 

The strength-eminent Atridi; 



Mention, too, was made of Gyllir." 

These also are recorded in Kalfsvisa: 

Dagr rode Drosull/* 

And Dvalinn rode Modnirj'* 

Hjalmther, Hafeti;'* 

Haki rode Fakr; 

The Slayer of Beli 

Rode Blodughofi, 

And Sksevadr was ridden 

By the Ruler of Haddings. 

Vesteinn rode Valr, 
And Vifill rode Stufr; 
Meinthjofr rode Mor, 

■ Carrier. 

* Stump. 

» Hoof-To8ser. 

4 Black. 

* Sinewy. 

6 Jade. 

' Horse, Steed. 

• Bloody-Hoof. 

' Hostage. 

" Hollow-Hoof. 

" Shining. 

«* Swift- Runner. 

»3 Golden. 

* Roamer 

" Spirited. 

" High-Heels. 



And Morginn on Vakr;' 

All rode Hrafn, 

They who rode onto the ice 

But another, southward, 

Under Adils, 

A gray one, wandered, 

Woundied with the spear. 

Bjorn rode Blakkr, 
And Bjarr rode Kertr;* 
Atli rode Glaumr,' 
And Adils on Slongvir; * 
Hogni on Holvir,* 
And Haraldr on Folkvir;* 
Gunnarr rode Goti,' 
And Sigurdr, Grani.* 

Arvakr' and Alsvidr" draw the Sun, as is written before; 
Hrimfaxi" or Fjorsvartnir " draw the Night; Skinfaxi *^ 
and Gladr ** are the Day's horses. 

"These names of oxen are in Thorgrimr's Rhymes: 

Of all oxen the names 
Have I accurately learned, — 
Of these: Raudr" and Hoefir,'* 
Rekinn"and H^frr," 

' Watchful, Nimble, Ambling, or perhaps Hawk. 

' Related to Kerti = a candle? 

* Horse ; etymology ? 

' Shining-Lip P (Jonsson). 

** Frosty-Mane. 

»< Bright, or Glad. 

" Red. «* Meet. 

* Tumult. 


9 Early- Wake. 

" Swart-Life. 

*' Driven. 

4 Slinger. 

' Goth. 
«« All-Swift. 
'3 Shining-Mane. 

«• Gentle. 


Himinhijodr' and Apli,' 
Arfr* and Arfuni/ 

These are names of seq>ents: Dragon, Fafnir, Mighty 
Monster, Adder, Nidhoggr, Lindworm, She- Adder, Goinn,' 
Moinn,* Grafvitnir,* Grabakr,* 6fnir,* Svafnir,* Hooded 

Neat-Cattle: Cow, calf, oxen, heifer, yearling, steer, bull. 

Sheep : Ram, buck, ewe, lamb, wether. 

Swine : Sow, she-pig, boar, hog, suckling. 

LVIII. "What are the names of the air and of the winds? 
Air is called Yawning Void and Middle World, Bird- Abode, 
Wind-Abode. Wind is called Storm, Breeze, Gale, Tem- 
pest, Gust, Blowing. Thus does one read in Alsvinnsmal: 

Wind 't is called among menfolk. 
And Waverer with the gods, — 
Neigher the great powers name it; 
Shrieker the giants. 
And Shouter elves call it; 
In Hel Clamorer 't is called. 

The Wind is also called Blast. 

LIX. " Two are those birds which there is no need to peri- 
phrase otherwise than by calling blood and corpses their 
Drink and Meatt these are the raven and the eagle. All 
other male birds may be periphrased in metaphors of blood 

' Heaven-Bellowing, or perhaps Heaven-Destroyer. ' Calf. 

' Bull ; properly = cattle, pecusy fee ; hence, inJurltance, ^ Heir ; cf. with 3. 

' For these names and their meanings, see Gylfag.^ ch. xvi. 


or corpses ; and then their names are terms of the eagle or 
the raven. As Thjodolfr sang: 

The Prince with Eagle's Barley 
Doth feed the bloody moor-fowl : 
The Hord-King bears the sickle 
Of Odin to the gory Swan's crop; 
The Sater of the Vulture 
Of the Eagle's Sea of corpses 
Stakes each shoal to the southward 
Which he wards, with the spear-point. 

These are names of the raven: Crow, Huginn,' Muninn,* 
Bold of Mood, Yearly Flier, Year-Teller, Flesh-Boder. 
Thus sang Einarr Tinkling-Scale : 

With flesh the Host-Convoker 
Filled the feathered ravens: 
The raven, when spears were screaming. 
With the she-wolPs prey was sated. 

Thus sang Einarr Skulason : 

He who gluts the Gull of Hatred, 
Our precious lord, could govern 
The sword; the hurtful raven 
Of Huginn's corpse-load eateth. 

And as he sang further: 

But the King's heart swelleth. 
His spirit flushed with battle, 

' For the meaning of these names (which are those of Odin*8 Ravens), see 
Gylfag., ch. xxxviii. 


Where heroes duink; dark Muninn 
Drinks blood from out the wounds. 

As Viga-Glumr sang: 

When stood the shielded Maidens 
Of the gory sword, strife-eager. 
On the isle; the Bold of Mood then 
Received the meat of wound-blood. 

As Skuli Thorsteinsson sang: 

Not the hindmost in the hundred 
Might Hlokk of horns have seen me, 
Where to the Yearly Flier 
I fed the wounds full grievous. 

The erne is called Eagle, Old One, Storm-Shearer, Inciter, 
Soarer, Wound-Shearer, Cock. As Einarr sang : 

With blood the lips he reddened 
Of the black steed of Jarnsaxa; 
With steel Erne's meat was furnished: 
The Eagle slit the Wolfs Bait. 

As Ottarr sang: 

The Erne swills corpse-drink, 
The She-wolf is sated, 
The Eagle there feedeth. 
Oft the wolf his fangs reddens* 


As Thjodolfr sang: 

The Spoiler of the Lady 

Swiftly flew with tumult 

To meet the high God-Rulers, 

Long hence, in Old One's plumage.' 

And as stands here: 

With skill will I rehearse 

Of the Storm-Shearer my verse. 

And again as Skuli sang: 

Early and late with sobbing 

I wake, where well is sated 

The hawk of the Cock's blood-ocean : 

Then the bard heareth good tidings. 

LX. " What are the names of the Sea ? It is called Ocean, 
Main, Wintry, Lee, Deep, Way, Weir, Salt, Lake, Fur- 
therer. As Arnorr sang, and as we have written above : 

Let men hear how the Earls' King, 
Hardy of mind, the Sea sought; 
The overwhelming Ruler 
Failed not to resist the Main.* 

Here it is named Sea, and Main also. 
"Ocean, as Hornklofi sang: 

When the man-scathing Meeter 
Of the Mansion of the Rock- Reefs 

' Sec page 130, * See page 198. 


Thrust the Forecastle-Adder 
And the skifF out on the Ocean. 

In the following verse it is called Lake as well : thus sang 


The Lake doth bathe the vessel, 
Where the sea 'gainst each side beateth, 
And the bright wind-vanes rattle; 
The surf washes the Flood-Steeds. 

Here it is called Flood also. Thus sang Refr, as was said 

before : 

Wintry One's' wet-cold Spae-Wife 
Wiles the Bear of Twisted Cables 
Oft into iEgir's wide jaws, 
Where the angry billow breaketh.* 

Deep, as Hallvardr sang: 

The Sword-Shaker bids be pointed 
The prow of the hardy ship-steed 
Westward in the girdle 
Of all lands, the Watery Deep. 

Way, as here: 

On our course from land we glided. 
On the Way to the coast of Finland : 
I see from the Ship's Road, eastward. 
The fells with radiance gleaming. 

Weir, as Egill sang : 

" Gymtr, Sec Gering, Die Edda^ p. 53, note 2. * Sec page 138. 


I sailed o'er the Weir 
To the West: I bear 
Odin's Heart-Sea. 
So it stands with me. 

Ocean, as Einarr sang: 

Many a day the cold Ocean 

Washes the swarthy deck-planks 

'Neath the gracious Prince; and Snow-Storm 

Furrows Mona's Girdle. 

Salt, as Arnorr sang : 

The hardy King the Salt plowed 
From the east with hull ice-laden: 
Brown tempests tossed the Lessener 
Of Surf-Gold toward Sigtun. 

Furtherer, as Bolverkr sang: 

Thou didst summon from fair Norway 
A levy the next season, 
With Din-Surf's ships the Furtherer 
Didst shear; o'er decks the sea poured. 

Here the sea is called Din-Surf also. 
Wide One, as Refr sang: 

To its breast the Stay's steed taketh 
The Home of Planks, beak- furrowed. 
And tosses the Wide One over 
The hard side; the wood suffers. 


- L 


Dusky One, as Njall of the Burning sang: 

We sixteen pumped, my Lady, 

In four oar-rooms, but the surge waxed: 

The Dusky One beat over 

The hull of the driven sea-ship. 

These are other names for the Sea, such as it is proper to 
use in periphrasing ships or gold. 

"Ran, it is said, was iEgir's wife, even as is written here : 

To the sky shot up the Deep's Gledes, 
With fearful might the sea surged: 
Methinks our stems the clouds cut, — 
Ran's Road to the moon soared upward. 

The daughters of iEgir and Ran are nine, and their names 
are recorded before: Himinglaeva,* Dufa,* Blodughadda,' 
Hefring,* Udr,* Hronn,' Bylga,' Drofn,* Kolga.' Einarr 
Skulason recorded the names of six of them in this stanza, 

Himinglaeva sternly stirreth. 
And fiercely, the sea's wailing. 

Welling Wave," as Valgardr sang : 

Foam rested in the Sea's bed: 
Swollen with wind, the deep played, 

' That through which one can see the heaven (Jonsson). 

* The Pitching One (Jonsson). ' Bloody-Hair. < Riser. 

» Frothing Wave. * Welling Wave. ' Billow. • Foam-Fleck. 

9 Poetical term for Wave. "The Cool One" (Jonsson). 

'^ In the following stanzas, for the sake of consistency, I have been obliged to 

translate the names, since they are employed in the stanzas as common nouns. 


And the Welling Waves were washing 
The awful heads of the war-ships. 

Billow, as 6ttarr the Swarthy sang : 

Ye shear with shaven rudder 
Billows moisty-deep ; the broad sheet, 
Which girls spun, on the mast>head 
With the Roller's Reindeer sported. 

Foam-Fleck, as Ormr sang: 

The hawk-like, heedful Lady 

Has every virtue: Lofn 

Of the Foam-Fleck's flame-gold, faithful 

As a friend, all faults renounceth. 

Wave-Borne, as Thorleikr the Fair sang: 

The sea wails, and the Wave-Borne 
Bears bright froth o'er the red wood. 
Where gapes the Roller's Brown Ox, 
With mouth gold-ornamented. 

Shoal, as Einarr sang : 

Nor met the Forward-Minded, 
Where the fierce sea on our friends falls; 
I think the Shoal becalmed not 
The Ship, Wood of the Waters. 

Fullness, as Refr sang: 

rather than as proper names. It is beyond my ability to translate H'mingl^eva 


Downward the Fells of Fullness 
Fall on the Bear of Tackle : 
Now forward Winterling stirreth, 
The ship, on Glammi's sea-path. 

Comber,* as here : 

The Comber fell headlong o'er me; 
The Main called me home unto it: 
I accepted not the Sea's bidding. 

Breaker, as 6ttarr sang: 

In burst the ship-sides thin; 
Rushed the Breaker downward; flushed 
Stood the wind, bane of the wood; 
Men endured wild tempest then. 

Wave, as Bragi sang: 

The Giver of the Wave's Coals, 
Who cut Thor's slender tackle. 
The Line of the Land of Sea- Mews, 
Loved not to fight the wroth sea. 

Sound, as Einarr sang: 

I sheared the Sound 
From Hrund south-bound; 
My hand was gold-wound 
When the Giver I found. 

* So Cl.-Vig. Literally, the word means ominous^foreboder. 


Fjord, as Einarr sang: 

Next I see a serpjent 
Carved well on the splendid ale-horn: 
Let the Fjord-Fire's Dispenser 
Learn how for that I pay him. 

Wetness, as Markus sang: 

I'll not lampoon the Chatterer, 
Lord of the fearful sword-blade, 
Who squanders the Sun of Wetness : 
111 is he who spoileth verses. 

LXI. " What are the names of fire ? Even as is written here 

Not seldom does the fire blaze 
Which Magnus sets: the stalwart 
Ruler burns habitations: 
Houses blow reek before him. 

Glow, as Valgardr sang: 

Fierce Glow, with red-hot embers. 
Swiftly from the soot flared; 
Straight o'er the tottering dwellings 
Stood up the dense smoke-columns. 

Bale, as here: 

Haki was burned on Bale, 

Where the sea's broad wake weltered. 


Gledes,-as Grani sang: 

I think the Gledes diminished . . . 
Glanuni's tnu:ks; thus the king kindled. 

Embers, as Atli sang: 

With blood the axe is reddened. 
Embers wax, bum many houses. 
Halls stand aglow; now rages 
The Gem; good men are falling. 

Here fire is called Gem also. 
Vapor, as here: 

Half-built, by the Nid's side 
Burn the All-Ruler's dwellings; 
I think fire razed the hall's pride: 
Vapor shot rime on the people. 

Hot Ashes, as Arnorr sang: 

The Isle-Danes' wrathful Harmer 

With the Raumar spared not hard counsel: 

Hot Ashes made them calmer; 

The Heinir's threatening words hushed. 

Flames, as Einarr sang: 

Flame soon was alight. 
And swiftly took flight 
All Hising's host: 
The fight they lost. 


Flare, as Valgardr sang: 

The sturdy king's bright Flare soared 
Above the castle's bulwark; 
The vikings burst in grimly: 
Grief on the maid descended. 

Lowe, as Haldorr sang: 

There did ye share their jewels, 
While o'er the host the Shield's Lowe, 
The sword, shrieked fiercely: never 
Wert thou spoiled of conquest. 

LXn. "These are time-names: Cycle, Days of Yore, Gen- 
eration, Lang-Syne, Year, Season, Winter, Summer, Spring, 
Autumn, Month, Week, Day, Night, Morning, Eve, Twi- 
light, Early, Soon, Late, Betimes, Day before Yesterday, 
Yester Eve, Yesterday , To-morrow, Hour, Moment. These 
are more names of Night in AUvinnsmal: 

Night 't is called among men. 

And among the gods, Mist-Time; 

Hooded Hour the Holy Powers know it; 

Sorrowless the giants. 

And elves name it Sleep-Joy; 

The dwarves call it Dream- Weaver. 

[" It is autumn from the equinox till the time when the sun 
sets three hours and a half after noon ; then winter endures 
till the equinox ; then it is spring till the moving-days ; ' then 

* In May. 


summer till the equinox. The month next before winter is 
called Harvest-Month ; the first in winter is the Month of 
Cattle-Slaughter; then Freezing Month, then Rain-Month, 
then the Month of Winter's Wane, then Goi;' then Single- 
Month, then Cuckoo-Month and Seed-Time, then Egg- 
time and Lamb-Weaning-Time ; then come Sun-Month 
and Pasture Month, then Haying-Season; then Reaping 

LXni. "What are the simple terms for men? Each, in 
himself, is Man ; the first and highest name by which man 
is called is Emperor; next to that. King; the next thereto. 
Earl: these three men possess in common all the follow- 
ing titles : All-Ruler, as this song showeth : 

I know all All- Rulers 
East and south, o'er the Ships' seat : 
Sveinn's son in proof is better 
Than any other War-Prince. 

Here he is called War- Prince also; for this reason he is 
called All-Ruler, that he is sole Ruler of all his realm. 
Host-Arrayer, as Gizurr sang: 

The Host-Arrayer feedeth 
The wolf and the raven in folk-mote; 
Olafr gladdens, in Skogul's sharp showers 
Of battle, the geese of Odin. 

' I cannot find the meaning of this word. 

* **Thi8 passage, which U lacks, is clearly a later addition.*' Jonsson, Copen- 
hagen ed. (1900), p. 138, footnote. 


'*A King is called Host-Arrayer because he divides his 
war-host into companies. 
Leader, as Ottarr the Swarthy sang: 

The Leader taketh 
Odin's loved Wife, 
The lordless land; 
His a warrior's life. 

Lord or Lording, as Arnorr sang: 

The Lord of Hjaltland, highest 
Of heroes, gained the victory 
In every thunderous sword-clash: 
The bard will extol his glory. 

An earl is called Host-Duke, and a king also is so termed, 
forasmuch as he leads his host to battle. Thus sang Thjo- 

He who put to shame the Host-Duke 

Thrust out the eyes of prisoners, — 

He who speeds the sacrifices; 

In song I chant his praises. 

Signor, or Seiior, as Sigvatr sang : 

O Norway's gracious Signor, 
Grant the wretched, as the happy. 
May now enjoy thy wise laws; 
Give greatly, hold thy word ! 

Munificent One, as Markus sang: 


The Munificent Prince brought fire's destruction 
O'er the base people; to the pirates 
Death was fated: Thief-Compeller, 
South at Jom highest flame-glow kindle! 

Illustrious One, as Hallvardr sang: 

No Illustrious One nearer 
Under Earth's Hazel liveth 
Than thou, O Monks' Upholder: 
The Gold-Minisher Danes protecteth. 

Land- Driver, as Thjodolfr sang: 

The guileless Land-Driver sprinkles 
Kraki's gleaming barley, 

as was written before;* he is called so because he drives 
his host about the lands of other kings, or drives a host out 
of his own land. 

LXIV. "There was a king named Halfdan the Old, who 
was most famous of all kings. He made a great sacrificial 
feast at mid-winter, and sacrificed to this end, that he 
might live three hundred years in his kingdom ; but he 
received these answers : he should not live more than the 
full life of a man, but for three hundred years there should 
be no woman and no man in his line who was not of great 
repute. He was a great warrior, and went on forays far and 
wide in the Eastern Regions:' there he slew in single com- 
bat the king who was called Sigtryggr. Then he took in 

' See page 173. * That is, in the landt bordering the Baltic. 


marriage that woman named Alvig the Wise, daughter of 
King Eymundr of Holmgardr:' they had eighteen sons, 
nine born at one birth. These were their names : the first, 
Thengill,* who was called Manna-Thengill ; * the second, 
Raesir;' the third, Gramr;' the fourth, Gylfi;' the fifth, 
Hilmir; ' the sixth, Jo furr; ' the seventh,Tyggi ; * the eighth, 
Skyli' or Skuli; ' the ninth, Harri * or Herra.' These nine 
brothers became so famous in foraying that, in all records 
since, their names are used as titles of rank, even as the 
name of King or that of Earl. They had no children, and 
all fell in battle. Thus sang Ottarr the Swarthy: 

In his youth stalwart Thengill 
Was swift and staunch in battle: 
I pray his line endureth; 
O'er all men I esteem him. 

Thus sang Markus: 

The Raesir let the Rhine's Sun shimmer 

From the reddened Skull's ship on the Sea-Fells. 

Thus sang Egill: 

The Gramr the hood hath lifted 

From the hair-fenced brows of the Singer. 

Thus sang Eyvindr: 

He played with the land-folk 
Who should have defended; 

' Russia. 

■ This word means Prince or King 5 Manna-Thengill = Prince of Men. 

' All of these words are poetic names for a Prince or King. 



Gylii the gladsome 

Stood 'neath the gold helmet. 

Thus sang Glumr Geirason: 

Hilmir beneath the helmet 
Reddened the sword hone-hollowed/ 

Thus sang Ottarr the Swarthy: 

Let Jofurr hear the beginning 

Of his laud: all the king's praises 

Shall be maintained, and justly 

Let him mark my praise-song's measures. 

As Stufr sang: 

The glory-ardent Tyggi 

South before Niz with two hands 

Beat down the band of heroes : 

Glad beneath their shields the host went. 

Thus sang Hallfredr: 

From Skyli I am parted: 
This age of swords hath caused it. 
'T is greatest of all self-mockings 
To hope that the king's guard cometh. 

Thus sang Markus: 

I bid the hawklike Danish Harri 
Hark to my cunning web of praises. 

* See page 197. 


^^Halfdan and his wife had nine other sons also; these were 
Hildir, from whom the Hildings are come; Nefir, from 
whom the Niflungs sprang; Audi, from whom the Odlungs 
are come; Yngvi, from whom the Ynglings are descended; 
Dagr, from whom come the Doglings ; Bragi, from whom 
the Bragnings are sprung (that is the race of Halfdan the 
Munificent); Budii, from whom the Budlungs are come 
(from the house of the Budlungs Atli and Brynhildr de- 
scended) ; the eighth was Lofdi, who was a great war-king 
(that host who were called Lofdar followed him ; his kin- 
dred are called Lofdungs, whence sprang Eylimi. Sigurdr 
Fafnisbani's mother's sire); the ninth, Sigarr, whence come 
the Siklings : that is the house of Siggeirr, who was son-in- 
law of Volsungr, — and the house of Sigarr, who hanged 
Hagbardr, From the race of Hildings sprang Haraldr the 
Red-Bearded, mother's father of Halfdan the Swarthy. Of 
the Niflung's house was Gjuki; of the house of Odlings, 
Kjarr; of the house of the Ylfings was Eirikr the Wise in 
Speech. These also are illustrious royal houses: fromVngvi, 
the Ynglings are descended ; from Skjoldr in Denmark, the 
Skjoldungs are come ; from Volsungr in the land of Franks, 
those who are jcalled Volsungs. One war-king was named 
Skelfir; and his house is called the House of Skilfings: his 
kindred is in the Eastern Region. 

"These houses which were named but now have been 
used in skaldship for titles of rank. Even as Einarr sang: 

I learned that the Hildings sallied 
To hold the Spear-Assembly 
On the Gray Isle; the broad shields, 
Green lindens, burst in sunder. 


As Grani sang: 

The Dogling to eagle's kindred 
For drink gave Danish blood. 

As Gamli Gnsevadar-Skald sang: 

• • 

Not long since, the young Odling 
With ship's deck and with sword-blade 
Joined battle, waging fiercely 
Of points the bitter tempest. 

As Jorunn sang: 

The Bragning bade the weapons 
Be dyed in blood of vile folk ; 
The people endured his anger: 
Houses bowed before red embers. 

Thus sang Einarr: 

The Budlung's blade sheared, 
Blood on darts was smeared; 
The storm-cloud of Hildr 
At Whitby spilled. 

Thus sang Arnorr: 

The Kin of Siklings inureth 
To the waves the ships sea-tossing; 
With blood he dyes the warships 
Within : 't is the weal of ravens. • 


As Thjodolfr sang: 

Thus the doughty Sikling ended 
His life; in dire straits were we: 
The glorious Lofdung waited 
Bravely surcease of living. 

The folk who were called Lofdar followed King Lofdi. 
As Arnorr sang: 

Chief, another Skjoldung higher 

Than thou shall ne'er be born 'neath sun's light. 

Volsung, as Thorkell Hamar-Skald sang: 

The Kin of Volsungs 
Gave counsel to send me 
The gold-decked weapon 
O'er the cool waters. 

Yngling, as Ottarr the Swarthy sang: 

In the East no mighty Yngling 
To earth fell, ere o'ertook thee 
He who subjected to him 
The Sea-isles from the westward. 

Yngvi: that too is a king's title, as Markus sang: 

The age shall hear the praise of Eirikr : 
None in the world a prince hath known of 
Lordlier; thou boldest, Yngvi, 
The Seat of Kings with long-kept glory. 


Skilfing, as Valgardr sang: 

The Skilfing kept a great host 
Southward in the broad lands, 
Where the swift ships shivered: 
Sicily soon was desolated. 

Signor, as Sigvatr sang: 

O Norway's gracious Signor, 
Let the poor enjoy; give greatly.* 

LXV. ^^ Skalds are called bards; and in skaldship it is 
correct to call any man so whom one will. Tiiose men 
who served King Halfr were called Champions,* and fi-om 
their name warriors are called champions ; and it is correct 
to call all men so. In skaldship men are called Lofdar 
also, as is written above.^ Those men were called Skatnar^ 
who served the king named Skati the Munificent : from his 
name every one who is munificent is called Skati. They 
who followed Bragi the Old were called Bragnar.* They 
who assess the transactions of men are called taxers. Fyr- 
dar*^ and Firar' are they called who defend the land. Vi- 
kings and fleet-men form a ship-army. They who followed 
King Beimuni were called Beimar.* Captains of companies 
are called Grooms, even as he is called who carries home 
a bride. The Goths are named after that king who was 
called Goti, from whom Gotland is named: he was so 
called after Odin's name, derived from the name Gautr^ 

* Sec page 226. * Rekkar, ^ Sec page 232. 

* Plural of Skati = lordly, towering. * Hcroet. 
*i ' Of. A.,-S,fyrd^firas, • Heroes, Men. 


for Gautland or Gotland was named after Odin's name, 
and Sweden from the name of Svidurr, which is also a title 
of Odin's. At that time all the mainland which he pos- 
sessed was called Reid-Gotaland, and all the islands, £y- 
Gotaland: that is now called the Realm of Danes or of 

" Young men not householders are called Drengs, while 
they are acquiring wealth and glory: sea-faring Drengs 
are they who voyage from land to land; King's Drengs are 
they who serve rulers. They also are Drengs who serve 
wealthy men or franklins; valiant and ambitious men are 
called Drengs. Warriors are also called Champions and 
Troops : these are soldiers. Freeholders are called Thanes 
and Yeomen; those men who go about reconciling men 
are called Day-Men. These men are they who are called 
Champions, Kemps, Men of War, Brave Men, Valiant 
Men, Hardy Men, Overpowerers, Heroes. Over against 
these are the following terms: Soft, Weak, Unleavened, 
Leavenless, Melting One, Sheath, Coward, Skulker, Weak- 
ling, Qualmish, CaitifF, Scamp, Vile One, Dog, Lout, 
Feeble One, Paltry One, Imbecile, Bungler, Son of 

"A good man of his hands is called Munificent, Illustri- 
ous, Towerer, Mighty Towerer, Towering Gold-Giver, 
Prince of Men, Wealthy One, Prosperous, Heaper-Up of 
Riches, Mighty Man, Chieftain. In contrast to these are 
they who are called Niggard, Miser, Calculator, Wretched 
One, Wealth- Hiding, Gift-Tardy One. A man wise in 
Counsel is called Wielder of Counsel. A witless man is 
called Clown, Oaf, Gander, Dupe, Boor, Idiot, Dolt, Fool, 
Madman, Maniac, Moon-Struck. One who thinks much 
of dress is called Gaudy, Dreng, Glittering One, Careful 


of Attire, Tricked-Out. A ooisjr fcUow is called 9iark- 
Skin, Braggart, Sheath-Ckancr, Fawner, Brawler, Good- 
for-Naug^t, Worthless One. Common-folk are called 
Country-folk or People. A thrall is called Kept-Man, Serf, 
Laborer, Servant. 

LXVL ^ f^ch one sin^y is called man; 't is twain if they 
are two; three are a thorp; four are a group; a band is five 
men; if there are six, it is a squad; seven complete a crew; 
eight men make a panel; nine are ^good fellows;' ten are 
a gang; eleven form an embassy; it is a dozen if twelve go 
together; thirteen are a crowd; fourteen are an expedi- 
tion; it is a gathering, when fifteen meet; sixteen make 
a garrison; seventeen are a congregation; to him who 
meets eighteen, they seem enemies enough. He who has 
nineteen men has a company; twenty men are a posse; 
thirty are a squadron; forty, a community; fifty area 
shire; sixty are an assembly; seventy are a line;* eighty are 
a people; one hundred is a host. 

LXVn. "Beside these there are those terms which men 
prefix to the names of men: we call such terms epithets 
of possession,' or true terms, or surnames. It is an epithet 
of possession when one names a thing by its true name, 
and calls him whom one desires to periphrase Owner of 
that thing; or Father or Grandfather of that which was 
named; Grandsire is a third epithet. Moreover, a son is 
also called Heir, Heritor, Bairn, Child and Boy, Inheritor. 
A blood-kinsman is called Brother, Twin, Germane, Con- 
sanguine; a relation is also called Nephew, Kinsman, Kin, 

* Sor^ar, plural of sdm/if a lady's necklace. 

* Ftdkenningar : literally, by-periphrases. 


Kith, Friend, Kin-Stave, Descendant, Family-Prop, Fam- 
ily-Stem, Kin-Branch, Family-Bough, Offshoot, Offspring, 
Head-Tree, Scion. Kinsmen by marriage are further called 
Sib-folk, Minglers of Blood. A friend is called Counsel- 
Mate, Counsel-Giver, Adviser, Secret-Sharer, Converser, 
Bench-Fellow, Fondling, Seat-Mate; bench-fellow also 
means Cabin- Mate. A foe is called Adversary, Shooter 
Against One, Hater, Attacker, Scather, Slayer, Hard- 
Presser, Pursuer, Overbearer. 

''These terms we call epithets of possession ; and so also 
if a man is known by his dwelling or his ship, which has a 
name of its own, or by his estate, when a name of its own 
is given to it. 

"This we call true terms: to call a man Wise Man, Man 
of Thought, Wise in Speech, Sage in Counsel, Wealth- 
Munificent, Not Slack, Endower, Illustrious One; these 
are surnames. 

LXVni. "These are simple terms for women in skald- 
ship : Wife and Bride and Matron are those women who 
are given to a man. Those who walk in pomp and fine 
array are called Dame and Lady. They who are witty 
of speech are called Women of Wisdom.' They who are 
gentle are called Girls ; they who are of high countenance 
are called Proud and Haughty Ones. She who is of noble 
mind is called Gentlewoman;* she who is richest. Lady. 
She who is bashful, as young maids are, or those women 
who are modest, is called Lass. The woman whose hus- 
band has departed from the land is called Stay-at-Home. . 

* Smt (plural, Sn6tfr) = 3L gentlewoman. Cf. Snotr = w'ae,A popular etymology. 

* Literally = Plowshare. (See Cl.-Vig., p. 498.) 


That woman whose husband is slain is called War- Widow : 
Widow is the term for her whose husband has died of sick- 
ness. Maid means, first, every woman, and then carlines 
that are old. Then there are those terms for women which 
are libellous : one may find them in songs, though they be 
not in writing. Those women who have one husband in 
common are called Concubines. A son's wife is termed 
Daughter-in-law; the husband's mother is called Mother- 
in-law. A woman may also be called Mother, Grand- 
mother, Great-Grandmother; a Mother is called Dam. 
Woman is further called Daughter, Bairn, and Child. She 
is also called Sister, Lady,' and Maiden.' Woman is also 
called Bed-Fellow, Speech-Mate, and Secret-Sharer of her 
husband; and that is an epithet of possession. 

LXIX. "A man's head is termed thus: [thus should it be 
periphrased: call it Toil or Burden of the Neck; Land of 
the Helm, of the Hood, and of the Brain, of the Hair and 
Brows, of the Scalp, of Ears, Eyes, and Mouth; Sword of 
Heimdallr, and it is correct to name any term for sword 
which one desires ; and to periphrase it in terms of every 
one of the names of Heimdallr] * the Head, in simple 
terms, is called Skull, Brain, Temple, Crown. The eyes 
are termed Vision or Glance, and Regard, Swift- Apprais- 
ing; [they may be so periphrased as to call them Sun or 
Moon, Shields and Glass or Jewels or Stones of the Eyelids, 
of the Brows, the Lashes, or the Forehead] . The ears are 
called Listeners' or Hearing;' [one should periphrase 

* Disf jodU: properly = sister. For discussion of these words, sec under dU 

in Cl.-Vig.,p. 100. 

' This and other passages in brackets are probably spurious. 

3 These are the literal meanings ; the meanings, in general usage, coincide : both 

words signify the inner parts of the ear (Cl.-Vig.). 


them by calling them Land, or any earth-name, or Mouth, 
or Canal, or Vision, or Eyes of Hearing, if the metaphors 
employed are new-coined. The mouth one should peri- 
phrase by calling it Land or House of the Tongue or of the 
Teeth, of Words or of the Palate, of the Lips, or the like; 
and if the metaphors used are not traditional, then men 
may call the mouth Ship, and the lips the Planks, and the 
tongue Oar or Tiller of the Ship. The teeth are sometimes 
called Gravel or Rocks of Words, of the Mouth, or of the 
Tongue. The tongue is often called Sword of Speech or of 
the Mouth] . The hair which stands on the lips is called 
Beard, Moustache, or Whiskers. Hair is called Nap; the 
hair of women is called Tresses. Hair is termed Locks. 
[One may periphrase hair by calling it Forest, or by some 
tree-name ; one may periphrase it in terms of the skull or 
brain or head ; and the beard in terms of chin or cheeks or 

LXX. "The heart is called grain-sheaf; [one should peri- 
phrase it by terming it Grain or Stone or Apple or Nut or 
Ball, or the like, in figures of the breast or of feeling. More- 
over, it may be called House or Earth or Mount of Feeling. 
One should periphrase the breast by calling it House or 
Garth or Ship of the Heart, of Breath, or of the Liver; Land 
of Energy, of Feeling, and of Memory] . Feeling is affec- 
tion and emotion, love, passion, desire, love-longing. [Pas- 
sion should be periphrased by calling it Wind of Troll- 
Women ; also it is correct to name what one soever is de- 
sired, and to name giants, periphrasing giantesses as Woman 
or Mother or Daughter of the Giants.] Feeling is also called 
mood, liking, eagerness, courage, activity, memory, under- 


standing, temper, humor, good faith. It is also wrath, en- 
mity, mischievousness, grimness, balefulness, grief, sorrow, 
ill-will, spite, falseness, faithlessness, fickleness, light- 
mindedness, baseness, hasty temper, violence. 

LXXI. '' The hand and fore-arm may be called hand, arm, 
paw, palm. Parts of the arm are called elbow, upper arm, 
wolfs joint,* finger, grip, wrist, nail, finger-tip, hand-edge, 
quick. [One may term the hand Earth of Weapons or of 
Defensive Armor; and together with shoulder and arm, 
the hollow of the hand and the wrist, it may be called 
Earth of Gold Rings, of the Falcon and the Hawk, and 
of all the equivalents thereof; and in new-coined meta- 
phors. Leg of the Shoulder- Joint, and Force of the Bow. 
The legs may be called Tree of the Soles, of the Insteps, 
of the Ankles, or the like; Running Shaft of the Road or of 
the Way or the Pace; one may call the leg Tree or Post of 
all these. The legs are periphrased in metaphors of snow- 
shoes, shoes, and breeks.] The parts of the legs are called 
thigh, knee, calf, lower leg, upper leg, instep, arch, sole, 
toe ; [one may periphrase the leg in terms of all these, call- 
ing it Tree, Mast, and Yard thereof; and in metaphors of 
them all]. 

LXXII. "Speech is called words, language, eloquence, talk, 
tkle, gibing, controversy, song, spell, recital, idle talk, bab- 
bling, din, chatter, squalling, merry noise, wrangling, mock- 
ing, quarrelling, wish-wash, boasting, tittle-tattle, nonsense, 
idiom, vanity, gabbling. It is also termed voice, sound, re- 
sonance, articulation, wailing, shriek, dash, crash, alarm, 
roaring, creaking, swoop, swooping, outburst. 

' This is the wrist-joint. 



LXXIII. '* Understanding is called wisdom, counsel, dis- 
cernment, memory, speculation, intelligence, arithmetic, 
far sight,* craft, word-wit, preeminence. It is called sub- 
tlety, wiliness, falsehood, fickleness. 

LXXIV. *' Expression is of two kinds : that which is called 
voice, and that which is called manners; manners is also 
temper. Reidi* also has double meaning: reidi^ is the ill- 
humor of a man, and reidi^ is also the rigging of a ship or 
the driving-gear of a horse. Far also has double meaning : 
far^ signifies wrath, andy^r* signifies a ship. 

" Men have made frequent use of such ambiguous ex- 
pressions as these; and this practice is called punniiig. 
\_Lith^ is that part of a man where bones meet; lid is a 
word for ship; lid means people; when a man renders an- 
other assistance, his aid is lid; lid signifies ale. Hlid sig- 
nifies the gate in a garth; hlidr men call an ox, and hlid 
signifies a slope. One may make such use of these distinct 
meanings in skaldship as to make a pun that is hard to in- 
terpret, provided one employ other distinctions than those 
which are indicated by the half-lines which precede. These 
cases are there, and many others, in which divers things 
have the same name in common.]" 

* That is, prophecy. * These are properly two different words. 

^ LiS. 


Cl.-Vig. =thc Ckasby-Vigfusson heUm^lk-Emgluh Diai§tunjt 
Oxford, 1874. 

Cod. Reg. = C»dfx Regius, one of the manuscripts in which 
Snorri's EJJa is preserved. 

Cod. Worm. = C^dex Wmrmianus, another of the manuscripts. 

Cod. Upsal. = Codex Upsaiiensis, a third manuscript ( U ) . 

Yngl. S. = Ynglinga Saga. 

Gylfag. = Gy^aginnittg, 

Skalds. = SkaldskaparmaL 



Pi^DAU and Eve, 3. 

Adils, legendary king of Sweden 
(the Eadgils ofBe(nvulf),iyO' 
172, 212. 

Africa, 5. 

Agdir, on the southwest coast of 
Norway, 207. 

Age of Gold, 25. 

Ai, a dwarf, 27. 

Aleifr(6lafrPa), Icelandic chief- 
tain of the tenth-eleventh cen- 
tury, 106. 

Alfheimr, abode of the Light- 
Elves, 31. 

Alfr, a dwarf, 27. 

Alfodr, 34. See Allfather. 

AH or Vali, son of Odin and 
Rindr, 41^ 114. 

All, legendary king of Norway, 
slain by Adils, 170, 171, 212. 

Allfather (Odin), 15, 22, 25, 27, 

31, 42, 43*46, 5i> 97. 
All-Strong, Sun's horse, 23. 
Alsvidr. See All-Strong. 
Alsvinnsmdlf one of the poems 

of the Elder Edda, 213, 224. 
Althjofr, a dwarf, 26. 
Alvig, wife of Halfdan the Old, 

Amlodi, 140. ** Amlodi's Churn " 

(=the sea), 140. 
Amsvartnir, a lake, 44. 
Andhrimnir, 50. 
Andlangr, the second heaven, 32. 

Andvari, a dwarf, 26, 151, 152. 

Andvari's Yield, 156. 

Angles, 197. 

Angrboda, a giantess^ 42. 

Annarr, second husband of 
Night, 22. 

Apli, an ox, 213. 

Apostles, 194. 

Arfr, an ox, 213. 

Arfuni, an ox, 213. 

Amorr Earls' Skald, poet of the 
eleventh century, 97, 1 34-1 36, 
180, 181, 196, 198, 201,209, 
216, 218, 223, 2^6, 231, 232. 

Arvakr. See Early- Wake. 

Asa-Thor, 59, 64, 65, 85, 116. 

Asgard^ abode of the ^sir, cita- 
del of the gods, 14, 15, 21, 22, 
25*74, 83, 89-91, 96, 107, 109, 
116, 143, 145, 146. 

Asgrimr, an Icelandic skald, 141 . 

Asia, 5, 8, 9. 

Askr ("Ash"?), according to 
pagan tradition the first cre- 
ated man, 21. 

Aslaug, daughter of Sigurdr Faf- 
nisbani and Gudrun, 159. 

Asynjur, the goddesses corre- 
sponding to the male ^sir, 3 3, 
45, 48, 89, 129, 143- 

Athra or Annarr, 7. 

Atli, son of Budli, brother of 
Brynhildr, and second husband 
of Gudrun, 1 56, 157,2 1 2, 230. 



Atliy a skald, 223. 

Atridr or Atridi, a name of Odin, 

34j 211. 
Audi, a name of Odin, 230. 
Audr, son of Naglfari and Night, 

22, 136, 137- 
Audumla,thecow that nourished 

Ymir, 18, 19. 

Augustus Caesar, 161. 

Aurboda, a giantess, mother of 
Gerdr, 48. 

Aumir, a giant, 165. 

Aurvandill, 118, 119. **Aurvan- 
dill's Toe,*' a star, 119. 

Aurvangar, 27. 

Austri, a dwarf, 26, 133, 134. 

Awful Winter, the winter pre- 
ceding Ragnarok, 77. 

OAfurr, a dwarf, 26. 

Baldr or Beldeg, son of Odin, 8, 

28, 36, 41, 71-75, 83, 92, 100, 

III, 114, 115, 11,9, 129, 174. 

"Baldr's Brow," a plant, 36. 
Baleygr, a name of Odin, 34. 
Barrey, 49. 
Baugi, a giant, brother of Sut- 

tungr, 94, 95. 
Bedvig, 7. 
Beigudr, one of Hrolfr Kraki's 

berserks, 171. 
Beimar, 233. 

Beimuni, a legendary king, 233. 
Beldeg. See Baldr. 
Beli, a giant slain by Freyr, 49, 

81, 112, 120, 211. 

Bergelmir, ancestor of the Rime- 
Giants, 19. 

Bersi, an Icelandic skald of the 
eleventh century, 181. 

Bestia, mother of Odin, Vili, and 
V^ 19. 

Biflindi, a name of Odin, 34. 

Bifrost, bridge of the ^sir, 24, 

25,28,40, 53>79- 
Bifurr, a dwarf, 26. 
Bikki (=Sibicho), JOrmunrek- 

kr's faithless counsellor, 158. 
Bil and Hjuki, the children who 

follow the moon's course (cf. 

Jill and Jack), 23, 47. 
Bileygr, a name of Odin, 34. 
Bilskimir, Thor's hall, 35, 107, 

Bjaf or Bjarr, 7. 
Bjarkamdl, poem attributed to 

Bjarki, the warrior-skald of 

Hrolfr Kraki, 173. 
Bjarr, 212. 
Bjom, 212. 

Black-Elves. See Dark-Elves. 
Blakkr, a horse, 211. 
Blodughadda, a daughter of the 

sea-god ^gir, 219. 
Blodughofi, a horse, 211. 
Bodn, a vat, 93-95, 103, 105* 
Borr, father of Odin, Vili, and 

Vc, 19-21, 103. 
Bragi, the god of poesy, 39, 53, 

89* 92, 94» 9^> 99» "3, "Sj 
121, 130. 

Bragi, a Norwegian skald of the 


ninth century, 13, 103, 107- 

109, i43» ^44, i50> i59> 160, 

185, 189, 221. 
Bragi, son of Halfdan the Old, 

legendary king, 230. 
Bragi the Old, legendary king, 

Bragnings, the dynasty of Bragi 

Halfdanarson, 230, 231. 
Brandr, 8. 
Breidablik, the abode of Baldr, 

3i> 36. 
Brimir, a hall, 82. 
Brisinga-men, Freyja's necklace, 

46, 113, 114, 129, 132. 
Brokkr, a dwarf, 145. 
Brunnakr's brook, 132. 
Brynhildr, 155, 156. See Hildr. 
Budli, son of Halfdan, father of 

Atli and Brynhildr, 156, 230. 
Budlungs, the dynasty of Budli, 

230, 231. 
Bui, 183. 
Buri, primogenitor of the gods, 

19, 103. 
Buseyra, iii. 
B^leistr, brother of Loki, 41, 80, 

Bylgja, a daughter of ^gir, 219. 
Byrgir, 23. 
Bodvar-Bjarki, one of Hrolfr 

Kraki^s berserks, 171. 
Bodvarr the Hak, an Icelandic 

skald of the twelfth century, 

134. [19. 

B61thom,agiant, father of Bestla, 


Bolverkr, a name of Odin, as- 
sumed by him on his visit to 
Hnitbjorg, 34, 95^- 

Bolverkr, an Icelandic skald of 
the eleventh century, son of 
Amorr, 218. 

Bomburr, a dwarf, 26. 

V^HRIST, 161, 194-197. 

Constantinople! 197. 

Creation: Hebrew tradition, 35 

Teutonic pagan tradition, 1 6- 


J^AGR, 211. 

Dagr, son of Halfdan, 230. 

Dainn, a dwarf, 26. 

Dainn, a hart, 29, 210. 

Dainsleif, Hogni's sword, 189. 

Dalarr, a hart, 210. 

Dalr, a hart, 210. 

Danes, 8, 234. 

Dark-Elves, 31, 43. 

Day, 136. 

Day, god of the day, 22. 

Dayspring, third husband of 

Night, and father of Day, 

Denmark, 9, 13, 161, 169, 199, 

Dolgthvari, a dwarf, 26. 
Dori, a dwarf, 26. 
Draupnir, a dwarf, 26. 
Draupnir, Odin's gold ring, 73, 

74, III, 134, 143, 146, 147, 




Drofn, a daughter of ^gir, 

Dromi, a fetter, 43. 
Drosull, a horse, 211. 
Dufa, a daughter of ^gir, 219. 
Dufr, a dwarf, 26. 
Duneyrr, a hart, 29, 210. 
Durathror, a hart, 29, 210. 
Durinn, a dwarf, 26. 
Dvalinn, a dwarf, 26, 104, sit. 
Dvalinn, a hart, 29, 210. 
Doglings, a 3^cdish dynasty^ 

230, 231. 

Harly-Wake, Sun's horse, 23, 

East, a dwarf, 20. 

Egill Skallagrimsson, an Ice- 
landic skald of the tenth cen- 
tury, 100, 104, 112, 142, 169, 
209, 217, 228. 

Egill Volusteinsson, an Icelandic 
skald, son of Volu-Steinn, y.i;., 

Eikin, a river, 52. 

Eikinskjaldi, a dwarf, 27. 

Eikthymi, a hart in Valhall, 

Eilifr Gudrunarson, an Icelandic 

skald (c. lOQo), 105, 108, 109, 

123, 194. 
Eilifr Kulnasveinn, a skald, 195, 

Einarr Skulason, an Icelandic 

skald, 139, 140, 148, 169, 175, 

196, 214, 219. 

Einarr Tinkling-Scale, an Ice- 
landic skald of tiie tenth cen- 
tury, 103-105, 175, 176, 182- 
184, 187, 193, 203, 205, 207, 
209, 214, 215, 217, 218, 220- 
223, 230, 231. 

Einheijar, Odin^s Champions, 

48* 53- 
Einridi, 7. 

Einridi, a name of Thor, 121. 

Eirikr, son of Earl Hdkon the 
Mighty, 205. 

Eirikr the Wisc-in-Speech, 230. 

Eirtksmdlf a poem on Eirikr 
Blood-axe, 102. 

Eldhrimnir, a kettle, 50. 

ElHn-Beam, the sun, 84. 

Ella, 129. 

EUi ("Old Age"), 65-67. 

Elves, 29, 31, 32, 80, 96. 

Embla (« Maple"?), the first cre- 
ated woman, 21. 

Enea. See Europa. 

England, 9, 104, 197, 199. 

Erpr, one of Gudrun's three sons 
by Jonakr, 158-160. 

Erringar-Steinn, a skald, 191. 

Europa or Ened, Europe, 5. 

Ey-Gotaland, 234. 

Eyjolfr the Valiant Skald, an Ice- 
landic poet of the early eleventh 
century, 194, 208. 

Eyiimi, maternal grandfather of 
Sigurdr the Volsung, 1 5 3, 230. 

Eymundr, a king of Holmgardr^ 


Eysteinn Valdason, an Ice/andic 
skald of the tenth century, 

Eyvindr Skald-Despoiler, a Nor- 
wegian skald of the tenth cen- 
tury, 98-100, 102, 105, 106, 
112, 136, 148, 172, 181, 188, 
197, 205, 228. 

P A FN I R, brother of Otter, 151- 

154, J74, an- 
Fakr, a horse, 211. 

Falhofhir, a horse, 28, 2x1. 

Fair, a dwarf, 27. 

Farbauti the giant, father of 

Loki, 41, 114. 
Farmat^r ("God of Cargoes"), 

a name of Odin, 34. 
Fearful-Tusk, Freyr's boar, 73, 

Fenja, one of the two giantesses 

who turned the stones of the 

mill Grotti for King Frodi, 

162-169, 174. 
Fenris-Wolf or Fenrir, 24, 39, 

42-45, 50, 78-81, 83, 84, lOI, 

Fensalir, Frigg's abode, 45, 71, 

Fidr, a dwarf, 27. 
Fili, a dwarf, 26. 
Fimbulthul, a river, 16, 52. 
Finland, 217. 
Finn, 7. 
Fire-Kindler, one of ^gir's 

thralls, 144. 


Five-Finger, one of ^gir*s 

thralls, 144. 
Fjalarr, a dwarf, 93. 
Fjolnir, a legendary Swedish 

king, 162. 
Fjolnir, a name of Odin, 34. 
Fjolsvidr, a name of Odin, 34. 
Fjorgfvin or Fjorgynn, Frigg's 

mother, 22, 129, 208. 
Fjorm, a river, 16, 52. 
Fjorsvartnir, Night's horse, 212. 
F61kvangar,Freyja*8dwelling,3 8. 
Fomjotr, father of the Wind, 141. 
Forseti, son of Baldr, 41, 89, 1 1 1. 
Franangr-Falls, 75. 
Frankland (Franconia, or all the 

territory occupied by the 

Franks), 8. 
Franks, the, 230. 
Freki, one of Odin's wolves, 50, 

Fredvin, 8. 

Freyja, daughter of Njordr, 38, 

46, 54* 73» 89* 9>> "»-in, 
116, 128, 129, 143, 148-150, 
184, 187. 

Freyr, son of Njordr, 38, 48-50, 
56, 73> 79> 81, 89, III, 112, 
129, 143, 146, 147, 149. 

Friallaf or Fridleifr, 7, 8. 

Fridleifr, 161, 162. 

Frigg or Frigida,wife of Odin, 7, 

22, 33»45-47» 71-74, 8J> 89» 
99, III, 114, 121, 129, 136, 

Frjodigar or Frodi, 8. 


Frodi, legendary king of Den- 
mark, 1 6 1 . Prodi's Peace, 1 6 1 - 
164, 167-169. 

Frosti, a dwarf, 27. 

Frosty-Mane, Night's horse, 22. 

FuUa, one of the Asynjur, 46, 
74,89, 129, 143, 148. 

Fundinn, a dwarf, 26. 

Fyri, a river in Sweden, 171- 

Fyris-Plain, 143. 

Folkvir, a horse, 212. 

vJALARR^ a dwarf, 93. 

Gamli Gnaevadar-Skald, an Ice- 
landic skald of the eleventh 
century, 109, 231. 

Gandalfr, a dwarf, 26. 

Gangleri, a name of Odin, 34. 

Gangleri, alias of Gylfi, King of 
Sweden, 14 ff., 23-25, 27-36, 
38, 44» 45> 49-53, 56, 57> 68, 
70> 75» 77, 81, 82, 84. 

Gangr, a giant, 92, 1 24. 

Gardar, the modem Rusbia, 196. 

Gardrofa, a horse, 47. 

Garmr, a dog, 53, 79. 

Gauta-T^r ("God of Gcats" ?), 
a title of Odin, 99. 

Gautr, a name of Odin, 34, 204, 

. 233- 
Geats, 197. 

GeQun, one of the Asynjur, 1 3, 

46, 89, 143. 

Gefn, a name of Freyja, 46, 149. 

GeirahOd, a Valkyr, 48. 


GeirrOdr, a giant, 33, 107, no, 

114, 121-124. 
Geirvimul, a river, 52. 
Geitir, 191. 
Gelgja, a chain, 45. 
Gerdr, wife of Freyr, 48, 49, 89. 
Geri, one of Odin's wolves, 50, 

Gevis or Gave, 8. 

Gillingr, a giant, 93, 94, 105. 

Gimle, the pagan Paradise, 16, 
31, 82. 

Ginnarr, a dwarf, 27. 

Ginnung^gap, the Chaos of the 
Scandinavian mythology, 17, 

Gipul, a river, 52. 

Gisl, a horse, 28, 211. 

Gizurr, an Icelandic skald of the 
eleventh century, 225. 

Gjallar-Hom, Heimdallr's trum- 
pet, 27, 40, 79, 80. 

Gjalp, a giantess, daughter of 
GeirrOdr, no, i22ff., 210. 

Gjuki, Sigurdr^s father-in-law, 

"55, 159, 230. 
Gjukungs, the dynasty of Gjuki, 

GjOll, a river (the Styx of the 

pagan Scandinavians), 16, 73, 

74. GjOll's Bridge, 73, 74. 

GjOll, a rock, 45. 

Gladr ("Glad," "Bright"), 
Day's horse, 28. 

Gladsheim, abode of the ^sir, 




Glammi, 221. 

Glapsvidr, a name of Odin, 34. 

Glasir, a grove in Asgard, 143, 

145, 174. 
Glaumr, a horse, 128, 212. 
Gleipnir, the fetter with which 

Fenris-Wolf is bound, 39,43, 

Glenr, husband of Sun, 23. 
Glenr, a horse, 28, 140. 
Glitnir, Forseti's hall, 31, 41. 
Gloinn, a dwarf, 26. 
Glora. See Lora. 
Glumr Geirason, an Icelandic 

skald of the tenth century, 98, 

104, 186, 197, 229. 
Glaer, a horse, 211. 
Gna, one of the Asjmjur, 47. 
Gnipa*8 Cave, den of the dog 

Garmr, 79. 
Gnita Heath, Fafnir's abode, 

153. 154. 

God of Cargoes. See Tyr of Car- 

God of the Hanged, a title of 
Odin, 97, 98. 

God of the Slain, a title of Odin, 


God of Tears, a title of Baldr, 

Goi, the eighth month, 225. 
Goinn, a serpent, 30, 213. 
Gold-Bristle, Freyr's boar, 73, 

Gold-Mane. See Gold-Bristle; 

also 115, 118. 

Goths, 233. 

Goti, Gunnarr*s horse, 155, 210. 
Goti, a legendary king, 233. 
Gotland, 1 6 1, 2 3 3, 2 34; or Gaut- 

land, 233, 234. 
Gotthormr, murderer of Sigurdr 

Fafhisbani, 155, 156, 166. 
Grabakr, a serpent, 30, 213. 
Grid, a river, 52. 
Grafvitnir, a serpent, 30, 174, 

GrafvoUudr, a serpent, 30. 
Gramr, Sigurdr Fafnisbani's 

sword, 153, 156. 
Gramr, a son of Halfdan the Old, 

Grani, Sigurdr Fafnisbani'shorse, 

>54» 155. i74» 177- 
Grani, an Icelandic skald of the 

eleventh century, 223, 231. 
Greeks, 194, 196, 197. 
Greip, a giantess, sister of Gjalp, 

Grettir, a skald, 184. 
Gridr, a giantess, mother of 

Vidarr, 122, 129. Gridr's Rod, 


Grimhildr, mother of the Gju- 
kungs, 155. 

Grimnir,a name of Odin, 34, 106. 

Grtmnismdly poem in the Elder 
Eddie collection, 35, 47, 52. 

Grimr, a name of Odin, 34. 

GrjotbjOm (ArinbjOm Thoris- 
son), a skald of the tenth cen- 
tury, 112. 




Hildr, or Brynhildr, a Valkyr, 

Hill-Danes (= giants), 120. 
Hill-Giants, 28, 35, 40, 48, 73, 

160, 165, 169. 
Hilmir, a son of Halfdan the Old, 

228, 229. 
HiminbjOrg, Heimdallr's dwell- 
ing, 3J» 40- 
Himinglaeva, a daughter of ^gir, 

Himinhrjodr, an ox, 213. 
Hinda-Fell, site of Brynhildr's 

hall and the Flaring Fire, 155. 
Hising, 223. 

Hjadnings, 178, 188-190. 
Hjalmberi, a name of Odin, 34. 
Hjalmther, 211. 

Hjalprekr, King at Thjod, 153. 
Hjalti the Stout-Hearted, one of 

Hrolfr Kraki^s berserks, 171. 
Hjaltland (Shetland), 226. 
Hjarrandi, 188, 190. 
Hjuki. See Bil. 
HjOrdis, Sigurdr Fafnisbani^s 

mother, 153. 
Hledjolfr, a dwarf, 26. 
Hleidr, 168, 170. 
Hler. See JEgir (2). Hler's Isle 

(now Lsess0), 89. 
Hlidskjalf, one of Odin's abodes, 

22, 31, 48, 75, 102. 
Hlin, one of the Asynjur, 47. 
Hlora, 107. 
Hlymdalir, 159. 
HlOdyn ( = Earth), 81, 208. 


Hl6kk, a Valkyr, 48, 181, 184, 

Hnikarr, a name of Odin, 34. 
Hnikudr, a name of Odin, 34. 
HnitbjOrg, 94, 103. 
Hnoss, daughter of Fr^a, 46, 

129, 148. 
Hoddmimir's Holt, 83. 
Holmgardr, the Scandinavian 

kingdom of Novgorod, 228. 
Hoof-Tosser, Gna's horse, 47. 
Hornklofi, a skald of Haraldr 

Fairhair(c. 900), 181,191,216. 
Hoy, 188. 

Hrafh, a horse, 210. 
Hrafhketill, 185. 
Hreidmarr, father of Otter, Faf- 

nir, and Reginn, 150-152. 
Hrid, a river, 16. 
Hrimfaxi, Night's horse, 212. 
Hrimnir, 108. 

Hringhomi, Baldr's ship, 72, 1 1 1 . 
Hrist, a Valkyr, 48. 
Hrolfr Kraki, a legendary king 

of Denmark (the Hrothulf of 

the Beo-Tvu/f), 169-173, 227. 
Hropta-Tyr ("God of Gods"), a 

title of Odin, 34, 99. 
Hroptr ( = Odin), 102. 
Hrotti, Fafhir's sword, 153. 
Hrund, 221. 
Hningnir, a giant slain by Thor, 

107, 109, 115-118, 121, 165, 

182, 185. 
Hrungnir's Heart, the name of a 

rune, 117. 

Hrymr, a giant, helmsman of 

Naglfar, 78-80. 
Hraesvelgr, a giant, 32. 
HrOnn, a river, 52. 
HrOnn,a daughter of .^gir^ 219. 
Hugi, 62, 63, 67. Huginn, one of 

Odin's ravens, 51, 214. 
Hugfstari^ a dwarf, 26. 
Husdrdpay a poem by Ulfr Ugg^- 

son, III, 113, 115. 
Hvergelmir, the wellspring of the 

Mist-World, 16, 27, 29, 52, 

Hvitserkr the Stem,one of Hrolfr 

Kraki^s berserks, 171. 
Hymir, a giant, 68-70, no, 132. 
Hyrr, an ox, 212. 
Hyrrokkin, a giantess, 73, in. 
Hoefir, a horse, 212. 
Hoenir, one of the ^sir, 37, 89, 

114, 132, 133, 150. 
HOdr^ the blind god, and slayer 

of Baldr, 40, 71, 72, 83, iii, 

HOgni, brother of Gunnarr, 

i55-i57» 182- 
HOgni, father of Hildr, 188-190, 

194, 201, 212. 
Holgi, father of Thorgerdr Hol- 

g^brudr, 173. 
Holl, a river, 52. 
Holvir, a horse, 212. 
HOrdland in Norway, 198. 
Horn, a name of Freyja, 46, 

HOrr, a dwarf, 26. 




Ice-Waves, a 

river, 17, 18. 
Ida-Field or Ida-Plain, 25, 83. 
Idi, a giant, 92, 124, 165, 174. 
Idunn, wife of the god Bragi and 

guardian of the apples of 

youth, 39, 89-91, 113, 114, 

129, 130, 132, 143. 
Illug^, an Icelandic skald of the 

eleventh century, 209. 
Ingi Haraldsson, Norwegian 

king (d. 1 161), 134. 
Ingvi-Freyr, 132. See Freyr. 
"Inlaying," 191. 
Ironwood, a forest, 24. 
Ironwpod- Women, 24. 
Itermann, 7. 
Ivaldi, a dwarf, father of Brokkr 

and Sindri, 56, 145. 

JafnhXrr, poetic name for 

Odin, 15-18, 20, 27, 33, 34,57. 
Jalangr's Heath, 161. 
Jalkr, a name of Odin, 34. 
Jarizleifr, a Russian king, 1016- 

1054, 202. 
Jarnsaxa, a giantess, 118, 129, 

Jat, 7. 

Jerusalem, 194, 197. 
J6m, 227. 
Jonakr, third husband of Gudr6n, 

158, 161. 
Jor, a horse, 211. 
Jordan, 194, 196. 
Jorunn, a poetess, 231. 

2s6 INDEX 

Jutland. See Reidgothland. I^aufey or Nal, mother of 

Jofurr, a son of Halfdan the Old, 
228, 229. 

Jord, daughter of Night and 
of Annarr, wife of Odin, and 
mother of Thor, 22,48, 107 ff., 
119, 127, 129, 134. 

Jormungandr. See Midgard Ser- 

Jormunrekkr ( = Ermanarich), 
King of the Goths, fourth cen- 
tury, 1 58-1 61. 

Joruplain, 27. 

Jotunheim, the abode of the 
giants, 13, 22, 25,42, 54, 55, 
58,72, 80, 91, 115-117, ii9i 

jS.ALFyfSAi 2ii» 

Keila, no. 

Kerlaugs, the, two rivers, 28. 

Kertr, a horse, 212. 

Kili, a dwarf, 26. 

Kjalarr, a name of Odin, 34. 

Kjallandi, no. 

Kjarr, 230. 

Knui, 166. 

Knutr, 136. 

Kormakr, an Icelandic skald of 

the tenth century, 100, 102, 

179, 186, 201, 204, 205. 
Kvasir, wisest of the gods, 76, 

93, 94, 103, 106. 
Kolga, a daughter of ^gir, 

Kormt, a river, 28. 

Loki, 41, 114. 

Leidi, in. 

Leifi, 160. 

Leikn, no. 

Leiptr, a river, 16. 

Lettfeti, a horse, 28, 210. 

Lif and Lifthrasir, the sole hu- 
man survivors of Surtr's Fire, 

Light-Elves, 31, 32. 
Listi, 129. 

Litr, a dwarf, 26, 73. 
Lofdar, 230, 232, 233. 
Lofdi, a son of Halfdan the Old, 

Lofdung^, the dynasty of Lofdi, 

230, 232. 

Lofn, one of the Asynjur, 46. 

Logi, 62, 67. 

Loki or Loptr, the sly god (Loki 
Laufeyarson), 33, 41 ff., 54, 55, 
57, 58, 62, 67, 71, 75 ff., 85, 
89-92, n3-ii5, 121-124, 131- 

i33> H3-J47> 150-152. 
Lora, wife of Duke Lorikus of 

Thrace, 6. 
Loridi, son of Thor and Sif, 7. 
Lorikus of Thrace, foster-father 

of Thor, 6. 
Lovarr, a dwarf, 27. 
Lund, in Sweden, 175. 
Lungr, a horse, 210. 
Lutr, III. 

Lyngvi, an island, 44. 
Laedingr, a fetter, 43. 



Lxradr, a tree in Valhall, 51. 
Logr, the Malar m Sweden, 1 3. 

AGI, 7. 


Magni, son of Thor and Jam- 
saxa, 83, 107, 108, 118. 

Magnus, zzz, 

Man, the Isle of, 203, 218. 

Mini, a skald, 193. 

Mardoll, a name of Freyja, 46, 

Markus, an Icelandic skald (c. 
hoc), i35>i92» 1959222,226, 
228, 229, 232. 

Marr, a horse, 210. 

Mary, the Virgin, 195. 

Mediterranean Sea, 5. 

Meili, Thor's brother, 119, 131, 

Meinthjofr, 211. 

Menja, a giantess, 162 fF. See 

Mennon, Trojan king, son-in- 
law of Priam and father of 
Thor, 6. 

Michael, the Archangel, 136. 

Midgard, the citadel prepared by 
the gods for hmnan habitation, 

^^9 a4» 53> 54, 68, 81, 107. 
Midgard Serpent, 42, 67-70, 78- 

81, 83, 107, 114. 
Mimir, the wise giant, who guards 

the well of wisdom, 27, 79, 80, 


Mimir's Well, the source of wis- 
dom, 27, 79. 

Mist, a Valkyr, 48. 
Mistletoe, 71, 72, 114. 
Mist-World, 16. 
Mjodvitnir, a dwarf, 26. 
Mjollnir, Thor's hammer, 35, 55, 

57, 60, 73, 83, 107, 118,121. 
Moda, 7. 
Modg^dr, the maiden who 

guards Gjoll's Bridge, 73. 
Modi, a son of Thor, 83, 107. 
Modnir, a horse, 211. 
Modrodnir, a hart, 210. 
Modsog^ir, a dwarf, 26. 
Moinn, a serpent, 30, 213. 
Mona. See Man, the Isle of. 
Moon, the Moon-god, 23. 
Moon-Hound, a wolf, 24. 
Mor, a horse, 210. 
Morginn ("Mom**), 212. 
Mundilfari, father of Sun and 

Moon, 23, 140. 
Muninn, one of Odln*8 ravens, 

51, 214, 215. 
Munon. See Mennon. 
Muspell, the Region of Fire, 16, 

24, 25, 50, 56, 78-80. 
Muspellheim, 17, 20, 23. See 

Mjfsingr, a pirate, 1 62. 
Mokkurkdlfi, 117, 118. 

^ AGLFAR, the ship of Muspell, 

56, 78, 80. 
Naglfari, husband of Night, 22. 
Ndinn, a dwarf, 26. 
Ndl. See Laufey. 



Nanna, Baldr's wife, 41, 73, 74, 

89, III, 129. 
Ndr, a dwarf, 26. 
Nari or Narfi, son of Lolci and 

Sigyn, 42, 77, 114. 
Nastrand, 82. 
Nefir, a son of Halfdan the Old, 

Nep, Nanna's father, 41, 73. 
Nid,a river emptyingintoTrond- 

hjem Bay, 223. 
Nida Fells, 82. 
Nidh6ggr,the serpent that gpiaws 

the root of Yggdrasill, 27, 29, 

30, 213. 
Nidi, a dwarf, 26. 
Niflheim, the Mist- World, 17, 

27, 42. 
Niflhel, the Misty Hell, 55. 
Niflungs, 155, 157, 174, 230. 
Night, 136. 
Night, the goddess of the night, 


Nikarr, a name of Odin, 1 5. 

Nikudr, a name of Odin, 1 5. 

Nipingr, a dwarf, 26. 

Niz, the river Nissan in Sweden, 

Njdll of the Burning, an Ice- 
landic skald and lawyer of the 
tenth century, 219. 

Njfirdr, reckoned among the 
^sir, but originally of the 
Vanir, 36,48,89, 92, 1 11, 112, 
129, 143. 

Noah, 3. Noah*s Ark, 3. 

Noatun, NjOrdr's abode, 36 flp., 

Nordri, a dwarf, 26, 133. See 

Nordrsetudrdpofli poem by Sveinn, 

Nori, a dwarf, 26. 
Noms: the three Noms, the Ger- 
manic Fates, 28-30, 1 43 J the 

minor noms, 29. 
North, a dwarf, 20. 
Norway, settled by Odin, 9; 

mentioned, 170, 188, 199,218, 

226, 233. 
Nyi, a dwarf, 26. 
Nyr, a dwarf, 26. 
Nyrddr, a dwarf, 26. 
Nyt, a river, 52. 
NOnn, a river, 52. 
Nfirfi or Narfi, a giant, father of 

Night, 22. 
Not, a river, 152. 

vJdin or Voden, son of Frial- 
laf or Fridleifr, 75 migrates 
from Turkland to the North, 

Odin (to be identified with the 
above), son of Borr and Bestla, 
and supreme deity of the pa- 
gan Scandinavians, 19, 27, 28, 

3J» 33i 36, 38, 45> 48» 50-53> 
72-75, 79-81, 89, 92, 94-107, 
109, III, 1 1 3-1 1 6, 1 1 8-1 20, 
124, 127-129, 131, 132, 136, 
i37> I43> i45» 146* >49-i5^ 



161, 180-183, 186, 190, 2o6, 

214, 218, 225, 226, 233, 234. 
Odr, Freyja's husband, 46, 55, 

129, 148. 
Odrerir, a kettle, 93-95, 103, 

105, 106. 
Ofnir, a serpent, 30, 213. 
Oinn, a dwarf, 26. 
Ok6lnir, a hall, 82. 
Olafr, 184. 
Oldfi* the Holy, King of Norway 

loi 5-1030, 225. 
Oleifir, King of Sweden (d. 1024), 

Omi, a name of Odin, 34. 
Onarr, 136, 201. 
Onarr, a dwarf, 26. 
Ori, a dwarf, 26. 
Orkneys^ 188. 
Ormr Barrey*s-Skald,a poet, 1 34, 

Ormr Steinthdrsson, an Icelandic 

skald of the eleventh century, 

104, 106, 141, 178, 220. 

Orun, 174. 

Oski, a name of Odin, 34. 

Ottarr the Swarthy, an Icelandic 
skald of the eleventh century, 
176, 180, 200, 206, 207, 215, 
220, 221, 226, 228, 229, 232. 

Otter, son of Hreidmarr, 143, 

A IG of the Swedes, the gold 
ring of King Adils, 171, 172. 
Priam, King of Troy, 6. 

XVA5GRfDR, a Valkyr, 48. 
Ridsvidr, a dwarf, 26. 
Ragnarr Lodbr6k, Danish king 

and sea-rover, 160, 161, 190. 
Ragnarr Lodbr6k's Song of 

Praise^ 189. 
Rdn, wife of the sea-god -^gir, 

137. i39» i44> 219. 
Randgridr, a Valkyr, 48. 
Randver, son of King JOrmun- 

rekkr, 158, 160. 
RatatOskr, squirrel of Yggdrasill, 

Rati, an auger, 95. 
Raudr, an ox, 212. 
Raumar, 223. 
Raven-God, a title of Odin, 51, 

Refill, Reginn''8 sword, 153. 
Refr, an Icelandic skald of the 

eleventh century, 98, loi, 104, 

138, 180, 185, 187, 193, 217, 
218, 220. 

Reginleif, a Valkyr, 48. 

Reginn, son of Hreidmarr, bro- 
ther of Fdfhir, and fosterer of 
Sigurdr, 1 51-154. 

Reidgothland (Jutland, 8), 234. 

Reid-Gotaland. See Reidgoth- 

Reifhir, 190. 

Rekinn, an ox, 212. 

Rekkr, a dwarf, 26. 

Rerir, 8. 

Rhine, the German river, 157, 

i74» 175- 



Rhymes of Thorgrimry no, zi 2. 
Rime-Giants, 16-19, 27, 35, 53, 

73» 79» H7. 
Rindr, the mother of Ali or Vali, 

41, 48, 100, 1 14, 129, 1 36, 137, 

R6di, 183, 184. 
Rome, 1949 195, 197. 
R6ta, a Valkyr, 48. 
Rygir, 180. [228. 

Rxsir, a son of Halfdan the Old, 
ROgnvaldr Jarl, Earl of Orkney 

1012-1045, 135, 202. 
Rfignvaldr's Song of Praise ^ 202. 
ROskva, Thor's handmaid, 57, 

58, 107, 108. 

UADR, a name of Odin, 34. 

Sdga, one of the Asynjur, 46. 

Sann-getall, a name of Odin, 34. 

Saxland (Saxony), 7, 9. East Sax- 
land, 7. 

Saxons, 171. 

Seskef, 7. 

Sessr6mnir,Freyja'8 hall, 38, 1 29. 

Sheen-Mane, Shining-Mane, one 
of Day's horses, 22, 212. 

Sibil. See Sif. 

Sicily, 193, 233. 

Sid, a river, 52. 

SidhOttr, a name of Odin, 34. 

Sidskeggr, a name of Odin, 34. 

Sif, wife of Thor, 6, 41, 107, 108, 
114, 116, 129, 136, 143, 145, 
146, 174. 

Sigarr, 7 

Sigarr, a son of Halfdan the Old, 

Sigarr, descendant of Sigarr son 

of Hilfdan, 230. 
Sigfodr, a name of Odin, 34. 
Siggeirr, son-in-law of Vfilsungr, 

Sigi, son of Odin, 8. 
Sigmundr, son of Volsungr and 

father of Sigurdr Fafnisbani, 

153. 159- 
Sigmundr, son of Sigurdr Fdfhis- 

bani, 155. 

Sigtryggr, 227. 
Sigt6n, founded by Odin, 8. 
SigtCin, in Sweden, 218. 
Sigurdr Fdfnisbani, legendary 

hero, 153-156, 158, 159, 230. 
Sigurdr, Jarl at Hladir in the 

tenth century, father of Hdkon 

the Mighty, 98, 185, 202. 
Sigvaldi, 183. 
Sigvatr, an Icelandic skald (fl. c. 

1000), 196, 200, 226, 233. 
Sigyn, wife of Loki, 42, 77, 89, 

114, 131. 
Siklings, 230-232. 
Silfrintoppr, a horse, 28. 
Silfitoppr, 211. 
Simul, 23. 

Sindri, a dwarf, 145, 146. 
Sindri, a hall, 82. 
SinQotIi, son of Sigmundr and 

half-brother of Sigurdr Fifnis- 

bani, 159. 
Singasteinn, 113, 115. 



Sinir, a horse, 28, zii. 
SjOfn, one of the Asynjur, 46. 
Skadi, daughter of Thjazi the 
giant, and wife of NjOrdr, 37, 

38, 77» 9i» 92> m>"5» 131- 

i33> i35» 143- 
Skafidr, a dwarf, 27. 

Skapti Thoroddsson, an Icelan- 
dic skald of the eleventh cen- 
tury, 195. 

Skati the Munificent, a legendary 
king, 233. 

Skatnar, 233. 

SkeggjOld, a Valkyr, 48. 

Skeidbrimir, a horse, 28, 211. 

Skelfir, a legendary king, 230. 

Skidbladnir, Freyr's ship, 53, 56, 
X12, 145, 146. 

Skilfingr, a name of Odin, 34. 

Skilfings, the dynasty of Skelfir, 
230, 233. 

Skinfaxi, Day'^s horse. See Sheen- 

Skirfir, a dwarf, 27. 

Skirnir, Freyr's messenger, 43, 

44» 48, 49> 79- 
Skjaldun. See SkjOldr. 

SkjOldr or Skjaldun, legendary 

king of Denmark, 7, 8, 161, 


SkjOldungs, Danish dynasty, re- 
puted to have sprung from 
SkjOldr, son of Odin, 8, 230, 

Skrymir, a giant, also called 
Utgarda-Loki, 59-61. 

Skuld ("That which is to be," 

the Future), one of the Norns, 

28, 48. 
Skiili Thorsteinsson, an Icelandic 

skald, grandson of Egill Skal- 

lagnmsson, 140, 148, 173, 215, 

Skyli or Skuli, a son of Hdlfdan 

the Old, 228, 229. 
Skaevadr, a horse, 211. 
SkOg^l, a Valkyr, 48, 99, 181, 

Skoll, a wolf, 23. 
Sleipnir, Odin's horse, 28, 53, 72, 

114, 115, 210. 
Slidr, a river, 1 6. 
Slfingvir, horse of King Adils, 

172, 212. 

Snotra, one of the Asynjur, 47. 
SnxbjOm, a skald, 140, 201. 
S6l. See Sun. 
S6n, a vat, 93-95, 103. 
S6ti, a horse, 210. 
South, a dwarf. See Sudri. 
Starkadr, no. 
Steinarr, a skald, 178. 
Steinn, 138. 

Steinn Herdisarson, an Icelandic 
skald of the eleventh century, 

135, 178- 
Steinth6rr, an Icelandic skald of 

the eleventh century, 100. 

Strong-through-Spells, a title of 
Odin, 102. 

Stiifr, a skald of the eleventh cen- 
tury, 229. 



StCifr, a horse, 211. 

Styrkdrr Oddason, a skald, 194. 

Sudri, a dwarf ("South"), 20, 

26, 128, 133. 
Summer, 32. 
Sun, 47. 

Sun, the sun-goddess, 23. 
Surtr, 16, 31, 78, 81, 83, 102. 

Surtr's Fire, 31. 
Suttungr, a giant, Gillingr^s son, 

Svadllfari, a stallion, sire of Sleip- 

Svifnir, a serpent, 30, 213. 
Svanhildr, daughter of Sigurdr 

Fdfnisbani and Gudr6n, 155, 

158, 161. 
Svarinshaugr, 27. 
Svdsudr, father of Summer, 32, 

Svebdeg or Svipdagr, 7. 
Sveidi, 192. 

Sveinn, a skald, 141, 192. 
Sviarr, a dwarf, 26. 
Svidrir, a name of Odin, 34. 
Svidurr, a name of Odin, 34, 234. 
Svipall, a name of Odin, 34. 
Svipdagr, one of Hr6lfr Kraki's 

berserks, 171. 
SvivOr, III. 
SvOl, a river, 16, 52. 
SvOldr, battle of, in which Olafr 

Tryggvason fell, 173. 
SvOlnir, 190. 
Swans, origin of, 30. 
Swarthead, 18. 

Sweden, realm of King Gylfi, 8, 
13, 162, 166, 170-172, 199, 

Swedes, 234. 

Sylgfr, a river, 1 6. 

Syn, one of the Asynjur, 46. 

S^r, a name for Freyja, 46, 201. 

Saegr, 23. 

Sxhrimnir, the boar which fur- 
nishes meat for the Einherjar, 

Saemingr, a son of Odin and first 
king of Norway, 9. 

S0kin, a river, 52. 

S0kkvabekkr, Saga's abode, 46. 

Solsi, 192. 

SOrli, one of Gudr6n's three sons 
by J6nakr, 158-160, 184. 

1 HEGN, 211. 

Thekkr, a name of Odin, 34. 

Thekkr, a dwarf, 26. 

Thengill or Manna-Thengill, a 
son of Hdlfdan the Old, 228. 

Thjdlfi, Thor's bondservant, 57, 
58, 62, 63, 67, 107, 108, 117, 
118, 124, 126. 

Thjazi (also spelled Thjatsi), a 
giant, father of Skadi, 37, 90- 
92, 130 fF., 135,165, 174. 

Thj6dnuma, a river, 52.. 

Thj6d6lfr of Hvin, Norwegian 
skald of the ninth century, 14, 
99, 119, 130, 134, 137, 173, 
197, 202, 205, 206, 208, 214, 
216, 226, 227, 232. 



Thor, son of Menn6n and Tr6- 
&n, and grandson of Priam, 6. 

Thor (to be identified with the 
above), son of Odin and JOrd 
(«* Earth"), also called Asa- 
Thor and Oku-Thor, 22, 28, 
35» 4i> 54-70, 73, 76, 81, 83, 
85, 89, 96, 107-1 1 1, 1 14-129, 
136, 143, 145-147,204,221. 

Th6rilfr, an Icelandic skald, 


ThorbjOm Lady VSkald, an Ice- 
landic skald of the eleventh 
century, 109, no, 194. 

Thdrdr Kolbeinsson, an Icelan- 
dic skald of the eleventh cen- 
tury, 204, 207, 210. 

Thdrdr Maeri's Skald, 176. 

Th6rdr Sjdreksson, an Icelandic 
skald of the eleventh century, 
III, 192. 

Thorfinnr, Earl of Orkney (d. 
1064), 198, 202. 

Thorgerdr Holgabr6dr, 173. 

Thorinn, a dwarf, 26. 

Thorkell Hamar-Skald, an Ice- 
landic skald (c. 1 100), 232. 

Thdrleifr, 121, 130, 133. 

Thorleikr the Fair, a skald of the 
eleventh century, at the court 
of King Sveinn t^lfsson of 
Denmark, 175, 176, 220. 

Thorn, 124, 127. 

Thorsdrapa^i^octa by EilifrGud- 
r^narson, 123 fF. 

Thorsteinn, 104. 

Thorvaldr Blcnding-Skald, an 

Icelandic skald (c. 11 00), 103, 

176, 199. 
Thrace, 6. 
Thrdndheim, the modem Trond- 

hjem, 141. 
Thridi, poetic name for Odin, 1 5- 

i7> 20, 33, 34, 57, 82, 99. 
Thrivaldi, a giant, 107, 109, no. 
Thrdinn, a dwarf, 26. 
Thr6r, a name of Odin, 34. 
Thrdr, a dwarf, 26. 
Thriidheim, Thor's realm, 6. 
Thr^dr, a Valkyr, 48. 
Thriidr, Thor's daughter, 107, 

108, 128, 129. 
Thnidvangar, Thor's abode, 35, 

68, 118. 
Thrymheimr, Thjazi's abode, 

37, 38, 90- 
Th udr, a name of Odin, 34. 

Thundr, a name of Odin, 34. 

Thviti, a rock, 45. 

Thyn, a river, 52. 

ThOkk, a giantess (Loki in dis- 
guise), 75. 

ThOll, a river, 52. 

Tindr, an Icelandic skald (c. 
1000), 183. 

Tjaldari, a horse, 210. 

Tooth-Gnasherand Tooth-Grit- 
tcr, Thor's goats, 35. 

Tr6dn, wife of Menndn and 
mother of Thor, 6. 

Tr6r. See Thor (1). 

Troy, 6, 9, 21, 85. 

264 INDEX 

Turf-Einarr, Earl of Orkney V AFTHRifoNiR, a giant, i8. 

(c. 900), 203. 
Turkland. See Troy. 
Turks, 9, 85. 
Tyggi, a son of Halfdan the Old, 

228, 229. 
T^r, god of war, 39, 42, 45, 79, 

89, 96, 113, 143. 
Tfr of Cargoes, a title of Odin, 

T^r of the Hanged, a title of 

Odin, 96. 
T^r of Triumph, a title of Odin, 

96, 98. 
Tjfr of the Wain, a title of Odin, 


U DR, a name of Odin, 34. 

Udr, a daughter of ^gir, 219. 

Ulfr Uggason, an Icelandic 
skald (c. 1000), 99-101, 106, 
110-113, 179, 186, 204, 208. 

Ullr,Thor's 8tep-son,4i, 89, 107, 
108, 114, 119, 128, 129, 180, 
182, 185. 

Ulysses, 85. 

Uppsala, 170, 171. 

Urdr (**That which has taken 
place," the Past), one of the 
three Noms, 28, 30, 186, 194, 
195. Urdr's Well, 28, 30, 186, 

^ 194, 195- 

Utgarda-Loki, 61-69. See Skrjf- 


Utgardr, 61. 

Uvigg, 8. 

Vdfudr, a name of Odin, 34. 

Vdgasker, 113. 

Vakr, Morn's horse, 212. 

Vakr, a name of Odin, 34. 

Valaskjdlf, one of Odin's dwell- 
ings, 31. 

Valfather (Odin), 27. 

Valgardr, an Icelandic skald of 
the eleventh century, 219, 222, 
224, 233. 

Valhall ("Hall of the Slain"), 
the abode of Odin's champions, 

i4» 33. 47, 50-53> 7i> 99> ^oz, 
116, 144. 

V41i, a dwarf, 26. 

Vili, son of Loki, 48, 77, 83. 

VAli, one of the ^sir, 89, 1 14. 

Valkyrs, 48, 73, 100, 102, 143, 

181, 182. 
Valr, a horse, 210. 
Vdn, a river, 45, 114. 
Vanir, the older Northern gods 

before the ^sir, 37, 46, 47, 

93, III, 112, 129. 
Vdr, one of the Asynjur, 46. 
Vartari, a thong, 147. 
Vdsadr, grandfather of Winter, 

Ve, one of Odin's brothers, 19. 

Vedrfolnir, a hawk, 29. 

Vegdeg, son of Odin, 7. 

Vegsvinn, a river, 52. 

Veiga in Hdlogaland, the modem 

VegenO, 207. 

Veratyr, a name of Odin, 34. 



Verdandi ("That which is in a 
state of being, or becoming/' 
the Present), one of the three 
Norns, 28. 

Vesteinn, 211. 

Vestri, or West, a dwarf, 20, 26, 

Vetrlidi, an Icelandic skald of 

the tenth century, 110. 

Victory-Tyr. See T^r of Tri- 

Vid, a river, 16, 52. 

Vidarr, one of the ^sir, slayer 
of Fenris-Wolf, 40, 80, 8 1, 83, 

89* in> H3- 
Vidbldinn, the third heaven, 32. 

Vidblindi, a giant, 177. [23. 

Vidfinnr, father of Bil and Hji^ki, 

Vidrir, a name of Odin, 191. 

Vidurr, a name of Odin, 34, 204. 

Vifill, 211. 

Viga-Gl6mr, an Icelandic skald 

of the tenth century, 98, 183, 

191, 215. 
Vigg, a horse, 211. 
Viggr, a dwarf, 26. 
Vigridr, the field on which the 

last battle is fought at the end 

of the world, 79, 81. 
Vili, Odin's brother, 100. 
Vimur, a river, no, 122 ff. 
Vin, a river, 52. 
Vina, a river, 52. 
Vinddlfr, a dwarf, 26. 
Vindler, a name of Heimdallr, 


Vindlj6ni, father of Winter, 33. 

Vindsvalr. See Vindlj6ni. 

Vindsvalr, 141. 

Vingener, 7. 

Vingethor, 7. 

Vingnir, 107. [25. 

Vingdlf, abode of the Asynjur, 

Ving6lf, abode of Odin's cham- 
pions, 33. 

Virfir, a dwarf, 27. 

Vitr, a dwarf, 26. 

Vitrgils, 7. 

Vitta, 7. 

Vaeni, the lake on which Adils 
defeated Ali, 170. 

VOggr, 170. 

Volsungs, 8, 230, 232. 

Voluspdj poem in the Elder Edda, 
16, 17, 20, 24, 26, 27, 31, 55, 
77, 78, 80, 8 1 . Fbluspd the Less^ 

VOlu-Steinn, an Icelandic skald 
of the tenth century, 106, 208. 

V(Jr, one of the Asynjur, 46. 

Vottr Veseti, one of Hr6lfr 
K raki's berserks, 171. 

Weird of the Gods, 39, 45, 
77 ff., 189. 

Westphalia, 8. 

Whitby, Scandinavian settle- 
ment in Yorkshire, 231. 

Willharm, 18. 

Wind, origin of, 32. 

Winter, 33. 

Witolf, 18. 



AWNING Void. See Ginnunga- 

Yggdrasill, the Ash, holy place 

of the ^sir, 27 fF., 53, 79, 80. 
Yggr, a name of Odin, 34, 204. 

(Cf. Yggdrasill, "Odin's 

Ylgr, a river, 16. 
Ymir or Aurgelmir, the first 

Rime-Giant, 17, 18, 20, 21, 

26, i33» i34» 136-138. 
Ynglings, the first Swedish dy- 
nasty, 9, 230, 232. 
Yngvi, son of Odin and first king 

of Sweden, ancestor of the 

Ynglings, 9. 
Yngvi, son of Hdlfdan the Old, 

to be identified with the above, 

99, 1 02, 230. 
Yngvi, a dwarf, 27. 
Yrsa, mother of Hrdlfr Kraki, 

168, 170-173. 

IjljGXK or Hler, dweller on 
Hler*s Isle, 89; visits the .^sir, 
89-96} mentioned, 115, 121. 

.^sir, the gods, to be identified 
with the above, 53-57, 61, 64, 

65» 70-72, 74-77, 79, 80, 83, 
84, 89-94, 96, 103, 142, 143, 

146, 150-152. 

^sir, the people of Odin ofTurk - 

land, 8, 9, 1 3, 14, 22, 27 ff., 33, 

-^gir, the sea-god, 1 37, 1 38, 143, 

144, 217, 219. 

Oi>LiNGSorOdlungs, 230,231. 
6gl6, 98, 197. 

Oku-Thor, 57, 61, 85. See Thor. 
Olvaldi, a giant, father of Thjazi, 

Idi, and Gangr, 92. 
Olvir Cut-Nose-and-Crop-Ears, 

a Norwegian skald c. 900, 107. 
Ormt, a river, 28* 




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